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Radiographic Procedures 2

RAD 150

Radiographic Procedures 2

RAD 150

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: RAD 100, RAD 105, RAD 108W, RAD 130, LW 206A each with a "C" (2.

0) minimum grade. Concurrent enrollment in RAD 110, RAD 120W, RAD 122, RAD 150, RAD 205W, RAD 210W, RAD 215, LWA 206B, LWA 206C. Continues radiographic positioning and provides the knowledge and skill necessary to perform radiographic procedures of the abdomen and gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary systems. Includes a review of fluoroscopy principles and equipment. Instruction on the principles and skills necessary to perform venipuncture. (15-23)

Outcomes and Objectives

Demonstrate knowledge of anatomy and positioning for procedures of the abdomen as well as contrast studies of the upper gastrointestinal system.

Objectives:

  • Identify all organs of the digestive system including each organ of the alimentary canal and all accessory organs.
  • Explain the physiology of the digestive system.
  • Describe the variations of stomach positions on each specific body habitus.
  • List and describe the common radiolucent and radiopaque contrast media necessary to visualize the gastrointestinal system.
  • Describe the patient preparation, room preparation, and the fluoroscopic procedure for an esophagram and an upper GI series.
  • Identify optional positions or projections, central ray location, direction and angulation of the central ray, if necessary, and anatomy best demonstrated on an esophagram and for an upper GI series.
  • Describe patient preparation, room preparation, and the fluoroscopic procedure for an upper GI series.
  • Given several radiographs of the upper alimentary canal, describe the anatomy best visualized, determine the position or projection, discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable radiographs, and describe how any positioning or technical error could be corrected to give a satisfactory result.
  • Position correctly each basic or routine projection or position for an esophagram and for an upper GI series.
  • Discuss pathologic conditions affecting the upper gastrointestinal system.

Demonstrate knowledge of anatomy and positioning for contrast studies involving the lower gastrointestinal system.

Objectives:

  • Describe three divisions of the small intestine.
  • Locate various parts of the small intestine and large intestine according to quadrant.
  • Describe the function, location, and pertinent anatomy of the small and large bowel.
  • Describe the characteristics, which differentiate the large intestine from the small intestine.
  • Explain common clinical indicators for a small bowel series and for a barium enema exam.
  • Identify two important contraindications to contrast media studies of the intestinal tract.
  • Identify the basic positions or projections, central ray location, and direction of central ray, and anatomy best demonstrated on the radiographic examination termed small bowel series.
  • Describe the purpose and the methodology for the enterolysis procedure and the intubation method of small bowel study.
  • Describe three specific types of radiographic procedures of the lower GI.
  • List five patient safety concerns that should be followed during a barium enema procedure.
  • Identify basic and optional positions or projections, central ray location, direction and angulation of central ray, if necessary, and anatomy best visualized on both the single contrast and the double contrast barium enema.
  • Given radiographs of the lower gastrointestinal canal, describe the anatomy best visualized, determine the position or projection, discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable radiographs, and describe how any positioning or technical error could be corrected to produce a diagnostic result.
  • Position correctly each basic and optional projection or position for a small bowel series and for a barium enema.
  • Discuss pathologic conditions affecting the lower gastrointestinal system.

Demonstrate knowledge of anatomy and positioning of contrast studies involving the gall bladder and biliary system.

Objectives:

  • Describe the function of the liver and the gallbladder as applicable to radiographic study.
  • Name and describe each portions of the biliary duct system, and be able to trace bile from the liver to the gallbladder to the duodenum.
  • Locate the usual gallbladder location according to body habitus.
  • Identify on drawings and radiographs, all anatomy of the biliary system.
  • Differentiate between and describe intravenous cholangiography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, operative or immediate cholangiography, and T-tube (delayed) or post-operative cholangiography.
  • Given various radiographs of the biliary system, determine the position or projection, discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable radiographs, and describe how any positioning or technical error could be corrected to give a diagnostic result. Position correctly the basic positions for biliary examinations.
  • Discuss pathologic conditions affecting the biliary system.

Demonstrate knowledge of anatomy and positioning for contrast studies involving the urinary system.

Objectives:

  • Identify the location and pertinent anatomy of the adrenal glands, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.
  • Describe the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the kidneys.
  • Describe the orientation of the kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder with respect to the peritoneum.
  • Identify essential patient history prior to injection of an iodinated contrast medium.
  • Describe the basic preparations necessary prior to any injection of contrast medium.
  • Differentiate between mild, moderate, and severe reactions to injected contrast media, and list several examples of each.
  • List seven basic questions to ask each patient prior to injection of an iodinated contrast medium.
  • Describe the purpose of excretory urography.
  • List clinical indications for excretory urography.
  • List contraindications to excretory urography and list high risk patient conditions to excretory urography.
  • Describe the correct method for instillation of contrast medium during a cystogram and list its indication.
  • Identify on drawings and radiographs, all anatomy of the urinary system.
  • Identify the basic positions or projections, central ray location, direction and angulation of central ray, if necessary, and anatomy best visualized by the various forms of excretory urography, retrograde urography, cystography, ureterography, and voiding cystourethrography.
  • Position correctly each basic position for the examinations of the urinary system.
  • Given various radiographs of the urinary tract, determine the position or projection, discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable radiographs, and describe how any positioning or technical error could be corrected to give a diagnostic result.
  • Discuss pathologic conditions affecting the urinary system.

Demonstrate knowledge and skills to perform venipuncture.

Objectives:

  • Identify the antecubital vein used for IV injection.
  • Demonstrate the procedure used for venipuncture
  • Explain extravasation
  • Discuss universal precautions as they relate to performing venipuncture
  • Explain the method for charting medications
  • Demonstrate basic knowledge concerning special contrast studies below: