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Principles of Radiation Biology and Protection

RAD 120W

Principles of Radiation Biology and Protection

RAD 120W

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: RAD 100, RAD 105, RAD 108W, RAD 130, LW 206A each with a "C" (2.

0) minimum grade. Concurrent enrollment in RAD 110, RAD 122, RAD 150, RAD 205W, RAD 210W, RAD 215, LWA 206B, LWA 206C. Examines biological effects of radiation on cells, organs, and systems. Emphasizes methods of practice including radiation exposure standards and radiation monitoring. (30-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

Develop an understanding of the concepts of radiation biology and protection as it relates to the patient and to the radiographer.

Objectives:

  • Explain the need for radiation protection procedures.
  • Define ionizing radiation.
  • Describe the potential for ionizing radiation to cause biological damage.
  • Define sievert and rem and explain their functions.
  • Identify the various sources of natural background ionizing radiation and the different sources of manmade or artificial ionizing radiation.
  • Describe the magnitude of medical radiation exposure.
  • Explain the responsibility for radiation protections in the field of radiology.

Successfully research, read, interpret and organize information and put into written form.

Objectives:

  • Research Internet, journals, and other radiation protection resources.
  • Identify relevant articles from sources.
  • Select important information from appropriate resources.
  • Draw relevant conclusions from an article.
  • Organize a paper to interpret information.
  • Summarize information using appropriate writing skills.

Identify the different interactions of radiation with matter.

Objectives:

  • Define the terms primary radiation, remnant radiation, and attenuation.
  • Identify four events that can occur when x-radiation passes through matter.
  • Identify the events that result in the impingement of scattered radiation upon the patient, the radiographic film, and the radiographer.
  • Identify the x-ray photon interactions with matter that are important in diagnostic radiology and differentiate between them.
  • Describe the effect of kVp upon radiographic image quality and patient absorbed dose.
  • Calculate the approximate Entrance Skin Exposure given radiographic and patient facotrs.

Identify the units used to measure radiation exposure to the patient and the radiology professional.

Objectives:

  • Describe the historical evolution of radiation quantities and units.
  • Define the radiation unites of exposure, absorbed dose, and absorbed dose equivalent.
  • Identify and explain the tradition and System International (SI) units for radiation exposure absorbed dose, and absorbed dose equivalent.
  • Explain the importance of linear energy transfer (LET) as it applies to biological damage resulting from irradiation of human tissues.
  • Define the term quality factor and identify this factor for each of the different ionizing radiations.
  • State the formula for determining absorbed dose equivalent.
  • Determine the absorbed dose equivalent in terms of traditional and SI units when given the quality factor and absorbed dose for different ionizing radiations.

Identify the limits of radiation exposure, the agencies that provide these limits and guidelines and understand the importance of following such guidelines as a radiology professional.

Objectives:

  • Identify the various agencies in the United States that share the responsibility for evaluating the relationship between absorbed dose equivalent and subsequent biological effects of radiation exposure, and also for formulating risk estimates of subsequent somatic and genetic effects of irradiation.
  • Identify the national agency that has the responsibility to enforce established radiation absorbed dose limiting standards.
  • Define the term effective absorbed dose equivalent limits.
  • Explain the purpose of the Radiation Control for health and Safety Act of 1981.
  • Explain the ALARA concept.
  • Explain the purpose of the Consumer-Patient Radiation health and Safety Act of 1981.
  • State the goal for radiation protection.
  • State the formula for determining the maximum permissible dose equivalent.
  • Calculate the maximum permissible dose equivalent.
  • Describe current radiation protection philosophy.
  • Identify the risks to health from exposure to ionizing radiation at low absorbed doses.

Demonstrate a basic knowledge of cell biology.

Objectives:

  • Explain the need for having a basic knowledge of cell structure, composition, and function as a foundation for radiation biology.
  • Identify and describe some important functions of the major classes of organic and inorganic compounds that exist in the cell.
  • Describe the molecular structure of DNA and explain how it functions in the cell.
  • List the various cellular components and identify their physical characteristics and functions.
  • Distinguish the two types of cell division, mitosis and meiosis, and describe each process.

Develop an understanding of how radiation affects human tissue and will identify tools to minimize this effect in the practice of radiography.

Objectives:

  • Define radiation biology and explain its relevance to radiation protection.
  • Describe how ionizing radiation produces damage in living systems.
  • Explain how linear energy transfer affects the amount of biological damage produced in living matter by ionizing radiation.
  • Explain the concept of relative biological effectiveness.
  • Differentiate between the three levels of biological damage that can occur in living systems as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
  • Describe the direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation upon the molecular structure of living systems.
  • Explain target theory.
  • Describe the effects of ionizing radiation upon the cell.
  • State the law of Bergonie and Tribondeau.
  • Describe the effects of ionizing radiation upon various types of cells.
  • Explain the significance of organic damage resulting from exposure of living systems to ionizing radiation.
  • Draw diagrams demonstrating the various radiation dose-response relationships.
  • Identify the factors upon which somatic and genetic damage depend.
  • List and describe the various early somatic effects of ionizing radiation upon living systems.
  • Recall the LD 50/30 for human adults and explain its significance.

Develop an understanding of the need for protection of the patient during a diagnostic radiologic procedure.

Objectives:

  • Explain the need for effective communication between radiology department personnel and the patient.
  • Explain the significance of adequate immobilization of the patient during a radiographic exposure.
  • Describe the various beam-limiting devices and identify the device that best confines the radiographic beam.
  • State the requirement for good coincidence between the radiographic beam and the localizing light beam when using a variable rectangular collimator.
  • Explain the function of x-ray beam filtration in diagnostic radiology.
  • Describe half-value layer (HVL) and give examples of HVL's required for selective peak kilovoltages.
  • State the reason for using gonadal shielding during radiologic examinations and identify the types of shields used.
  • Discuss the need for using appropriate radiographic exposure factors for all radiologic procedures.
  • Explain how radiographic exposure factors can be adjusted to reduce patient dose.

Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of protection of the radiology professional during radiologic procedures and the practices to reduce this exposure.

Objectives:

  • State the annual effective dose equivalent limit for whole-body occupational exposure of diagnostic radiology personnel.
  • Explain why occupational exposure of diagnostic radiology personnel must be limited.
  • Identify the type of x-radiation that poses the greatest occupational hazard in diagnostic radiology.
  • Explain how various methods and techniques that reduce patient exposure during a diagnostic examination also reduce exposure for the radiographer and other diagnostic personnel.
  • Describe the construction of protective structural shielding and identify the factors that govern the selection of appropriate construction materials.
  • State the effective absorbed dose equivalent limit in millirems per week for controlled and uncontrolled areas.
  • Explain how distance reduces radiation exposure.
  • State and explain the inverse square law.
  • Describe the protective garments that can be worn to reduce whole-body exposure and identify the circumstances in which such garments would be worn.
  • Identify persons and methods that can provide patient restraint during a radiologic procedure.
  • Explain the various methods and devices that can be used to reduce exposure for personnel during a fluoroscopic examination.
  • Explain the various methods and devices that can be used to reduce the radiographer's exposure during a mobile radiographic examination.

Identify and explain the use of various radiation monitoring equipment.

Objectives:

  • State the reason why a radiation worker should wear a personnel-monitoring device.
  • Explain the function of a personnel-monitoring device.
  • Identify the appropriate location on the body of diagnostic radiology personnel where the personnel monitoring device should be placed during the following exams:
  • List the characteristics of a personnel-monitoring device.
  • Describe the various components of the film badge and explain the use of the device as a personnel monitor.
  • Describe the pocket ionization chamber and explain the use of the device as a personnel monitor.
  • Describe the thermoluminescent dosimeter and explain the use of the device as a personnel monitor.
  • Explain the function of radiation survey instruments.
  • List four gas-filled radiation survey instruments.
  • Explain the requirements for radiation survey instruments.
  • Explain the function of the following: