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Basic Science of Medical Imaging

RAD 100

Basic Science of Medical Imaging

RAD 100

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: Admission to Radiography program.

Concurrent enrollment in RAD 105, RAD 108W, RAD 130, and LW 206A. Presents the basic operations of generating equipment including electrodynamics, electromagnetism, rectification, and circuitry related to the production of x-radiation. (30-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

Demonstrate an understanding of the general principles of physical science.

Objectives:

  • Define and discuss systems of measurement
  • Define and describe the general principles that relate to inertia, work, energy, power, force and momentum.
  • Describe the relationship between matter and energy.
  • Describe Newton's Laws of Motion.
  • Perform quantitative analysis using formulas for force, work, energy, velocity, power and temperature

Demonstrate an understanding of the basic x-ray circuit.

Objectives:

  • Describe the components of a primary x-ray circuit and explain the function of each component.
  • Describe the components of a secondary x-ray circuit and explain the function of each component.
  • Describe the components of an x-ray filament circuit and explain the function of each component.
  • Label the parts and direction of the flow of current on a simple diagram of a component x-ray circuit.

Demonstrate an understanding of specialized radiographic equipment.

Objectives:

  • Identify the components of the radiographic fluoroscopic unit.
  • Identify the components of an image intensifier.
  • Explain the functions of the components of the image intensifier.
  • Discuss the effects of minification and flux gain on total brightness gain.
  • Discuss the factors that affect fluoroscopic image contrast, resolution, distortion, and quantum mottle.
  • Evaluate the three basic types of fluoroscopic viewing systems.
  • Explain digital fluoroscopic image acquisition.
  • Explain the basic function of a fluoroscopic automatic brightness control.
  • Discuss safety considerations in performing fluoroscopic examinations.
  • Explain the tomographic principle.
  • Explain the relationship of tomographic amplitude to exposure amplitude.
  • Discuss image blur.
  • Identify the components of a tomographic unit.
  • Compare various tomographic motions.
  • Describe magnification radiography and its uses.

Demonstrate an understanding of the basic characteristics of the structure of matter.

Objectives:

  • Describe the characteristics and give an example of a mixture.
  • Define and give an example of a substance.
  • Describe the characteristics of an element using the periodic table.
  • Define and give an example of a compound.
  • Describe the characteristics of a molecule.

Demonstrate an understanding of atomic structure and ionization.

Objectives:

  • Describe Bohr's theory of atomic structure.
  • Discuss the characteristics and function of a proton, neutron, and electron.
  • Discuss the energy levels of the atom.
  • Define the terms relating to atomic nomenclature.
  • Explain the process of ionization.
  • Identify types of ionizing radiation
  • Define radioactivity
  • Define and calculate radioactive half life

Relate the energies, wavelengths, and frequencies to the electromagnetic spectrum.

Objectives:

  • Describe the nature of light and of photons.
  • Discuss the wave model for visible light
  • Compare energies, wavelengths and frequencies on the electromagnetic spectrum and their relationships to velocity.
  • Describe the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Explain the relationship of energy and frequency to Planck's Constant.
  • Explain the concept of wave-particle duality of x-radiation.
  • Explain the Inverse Square Law
  • Perform quantitative analysis using the Inverse Square Law formula, wave equation, quantum equation and the theory of relativity.

Demonstrate an understanding of the basic concepts of electricity and the Laws of Electrostatics.

Objectives:

  • Define electrical charge and describe its source.
  • Define electrical field and describe its source.
  • Explain methods of electrification.
  • Explain the Laws of Electrostatics and their application.

Demonstrate an understanding of the laws of electrodynamics within a circuit.

Objectives:

  • Define potential difference, current, resistance, circuit, and electric power.
  • Discriminate between series and parallel circuits.
  • Describe the characteristics of direct and alternating currents.
  • Label the parts of a resistance circuit on a schematic diagram.
  • Identify and apply Ohm's Law to resolve direct current problems.
  • Perform quantitative analysis using the power formulas to determine power consumed.
  • Describe electrical measuring devices.
  • Label the electrical measuring devices on a schematic diagram of a circuit.
  • Describe electrical protective devices.

Demonstrate an understanding of the laws and properties of magnetism.

Objectives:

  • Discuss the properties of magnetism.
  • Discuss the laws of magnetism.
  • Discuss the domain theory.
  • Relate the electronic spin of an element to its potential magnetic properties.
  • Explain the principle of magnetic induction.
  • Classify individual materials according to magnetic characteristics.

Demonstrate the ability to relate electromagnetism to the radiographic equipment.

Objectives:

  • Explain the interaction between electric and magnetic fields.
  • Discuss types of electromagnetic induction.
  • Describe types and functions of generators, motors, transformers and rectification systems.
  • Apply the transformer laws to solve problems.
  • Compare single phase, three phase, high frequency and falling load generators in terms of radiation production and efficiency.

Demonstrate the ability to relate rectifiers to radiographic equipment.

Objectives:

  • Define rectification.
  • Explain the purpose of rectification.
  • Compare solid state and vacuum tube rectification in terms of function and advantages/disadvantages.
  • Explain the difference between full wave and three phase rectification.