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Fundamentals of Patient Mobility

PTA 110

Fundamentals of Patient Mobility

PTA 110

Course Description

Prerequisite: Admission to the PTA program. Concurrent enrollment in PTA 101, PTA 101LW, PTA 105, PTA 105LW, PTA 110L, ENG 113, and LW 206A. Introduces basic principles of patient mobility. Focuses on the analysis of gait, gait training, use of assistive devices, patient transfers, postural assessment, balance and flexibility. (30-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

Monitor a patient's status during exercise.

Objectives:

  • List normal values for vital signs.
  • Define hypertension and hypotension.

Discuss spinal scoliosis.

Objectives:

  • Define scoliosis.
  • Differentiate between structural and functional scoliosis.
  • Describe the etiology of structural and functional scoliosis.
  • Categorize scoliosis curves by their names.
  • Identify problems that a scoliosis patient may have.

Discuss normal and abnormal dynamic and static balance.

Objectives:

  • Define balance.
  • Define and apply balance rating scale.
  • Describe how the patient's environment can impact his/her balance.
  • Describe the FIM.

Demonstrate an understanding of therapeutic exercise.

Objectives:

  • List the goals of therapeutic exercise.
  • Define strength.
  • Define the biomechanical factors that influence strength.
  • Differentiate between muscle and total body strength.
  • Recognize metabolic changes that occur as adaptations to endurance training.
  • Describe the difference between resistive and endurance exercise.
  • Describe joint mobility.
  • Compare/contrast the different types of mobility exercises.
  • Describe the therapeutic basis of relaxation exercises.
  • Differentiate between balance, coordination, and skill.

Describe the theory of stretching exercises.

Objectives:

  • Define the purpose of stretching.
  • Identify conditions that lead to soft tissue shortening.
  • Describe and perform various types of stretching exercises.
  • Define ballistic stretching.
  • List indications and contraindications for stretching.

Describe the way society treats individuals with disabilities.

Objectives:

  • Describe appropriate communication with persons with disabilities.
  • Describe the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Discuss potential legal and ethical issues pertaining to course content and appropriate responses to each issue.

Objectives:

  • Describe an appropriate response to each legal/ethical clinical issue discussed in class.

Use appropriate action in emergency situations.

Objectives:

  • Initiate BCLS procedures during mock emergency situations.
  • Participate in mock disaster drills.

Describe proper body mechanics and lifting techniques.

Objectives:

  • Define body mechanics.
  • List the principles of proper body mechanics.
  • Describe the various lifting techniques.

Demonstrate understanding of the decubitus ulcer process.

Objectives:

  • Define the four stages of a decubitus ulcer.
  • Describe the body areas susceptible to pressure ulcers.
  • List the purposes of proper patient positioning.
  • Describe patient positions that will prevent pressure ulcers.
  • Recognize the signs of development of a decubitis ulcer.
  • Verbalize appropriate measures to prevent decubitus ulcers.

Describe how to prevent contractures.

Objectives:

  • Define contracture.
  • Describe how contractures develop.
  • Describe appropriate patient positioning to avoid contracture development in AKA, BKA, RA, and burn patients.
  • Educate patients on proper positioning to avoid the development of contractures.

Describe bed mobility and transfer skills.

Objectives:

  • Define bed mobility.
  • Define transfers.
  • Define the different levels of assistance that may be required.
  • List the general rules of safe transfers.

Describe tilt table usage.

Objectives:

  • Describe the components of the tilt table.
  • Define orthostatic hypotension and describe how it relates to the tilt table.

Discuss gait deviations.

Objectives:

  • Describe antalgic gait, gluteus medius gait, gluteus maximus gait, hip flexor gait, and dorsiflexor gait.
  • List normal ROM of the lower extremities and pelvis during gait.
  • Define the phases of the gait cycle and each stage within each phase using Rancho Los Amigos and Traditional terminology.
  • Describe muscles that are active during each stage of the gait cycle.

Describe assistive devices.

Objectives:

  • Describe the muscles involved in ambulation with assistive devices.
  • Describe the purposes of assistive devices.
  • List the advantages and disadvantages of the various assistive devices.
  • Describe the order of greatest to least support for the assistive devices.

Describe gross postural analysis.

Objectives:

  • Describe the different body types.
  • Discuss normal posture and compare/contrast normal vs. abnormal.
  • Describe the grading scale used to define the deviations detected.
  • Define terms used for postural analysis.