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Introduction to Engineering Materials

MT 221W

Introduction to Engineering Materials

MT 221W

Course Description

Prerequisite: MIT 111 and MATH LEVEL 6. Examines the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of metals, ceramics, polymers, and composite materials and relates these properties to application requirements. Exams the micro and macro structures of these materials along with the tests and measurements designed to identify them. Discusses concepts necessary to the selection and specification of materials for making products and building structures. (30-30)

Outcomes and Objectives

List the materials related criteria of engineering design.

Objectives:

  • List the decisions that need to be addressed when selecting materials for design.
  • Give the names of the 5 groups of engineering materials.
  • List the 4 levels of structure for materials.
  • Distinguish between mechanical, chemical and physical properties.

Describe a ceramic material, and cite typical mechanical, physical, thermal, and electrical properties of ceramics.

Objectives:

  • Distingish between traditional ceramics and engineering ceramics.
  • Explain why ceramics are used in capacitors.
  • Cite some applications of ceramics as refractory materials.
  • Explain why ceramics have both high compressive strength and low tensile strength.
  • Briefly describe the three types of oxides used to fabricate glass.

Describe a composite material based on its basic constituents.

Objectives:

  • Compare mechanical properties of composites with metallic materials and plastics.
  • Cite the three most common used fibers for reinforcement of composite materials.

Characterize the forms of material degradation, metallic corrosion and corrosive environments.

Objectives:

  • List the forms of corrosion cells.
  • Explain each of the corrosion mechanisms:
  • Explain how the galvanic series in seawater may be used to predict and minimize corrosion.
  • Explain how inhibitors, cathodic protection, and passivation are useful to minimize corrosion.

Characterize the forms, mechanisms, and environments of material failure.

Objectives:

  • Name and describe the common fracture mechanisms.
  • Describe the evidence to indicate a ductile failure.
  • Describe the evidence to indicate a brittle failure.
  • What is the effect of temperature and rate of load application on failure.
  • List the conditions which are frequently implicated as causes for the start of a fatigue fracture.
  • List service conditions, which can contribute to material failure.

Demonstrate the ability to think critically.

Objectives:

  • Integrate the concepts of material systems with their properties and applications.
  • Solve materials problems.
  • Draw logical conclusions from the results of research and lab exercises.
  • Make predictions based on evidence.
  • Identify trends and patterns.

Communicate effectively about materials.

Objectives:

  • Read various forms of written communication to gather information about materials.
  • Organize and integrate materials information into patterns and hierarchies.
  • Analyze various forms of communication.
  • Write effectively for a specific audience and purpose.
  • Use writing tasks to promote the learning of materials and material systems.
  • Demonstrate the learning of materials and material systems through writing.

Describe the mechanical tests typical used to characterize materials.

Objectives:

  • Explain what is measured by a hardness test.
  • Explain which properties of a material are measured by a tensile test machine.
  • Distinguish between elastic and plastic behavior of materials.
  • Explain what is measured by an impact test.
  • Describe what material property is measured by a fatigue test.
  • Explain the conducting of a creep test and describe the material properties measured.

Describe the characteristics of atomic arrangement for materials.

Objectives:

  • List the atomic structure for all materials.
  • Describe the mechanisms of atomic bonding in various materials.
  • List the characteristic properties of metals, polymers, ceramics and composites.
  • Distinguish between amorphous and crystalline materials.
  • List the common unit cells for materials.
  • Give the relationship between atomic packing factor and coordination number.
  • Describe the interstitial space of lattice systems.
  • Distinguish between allotropic and polymorph materials.
  • Explain isotropic behavior of materials.

Characterize the imperfections of atomic arrangements in materials.

Objectives:

  • List the reasons for the intentional control of imperfections of atomic arrangment of materials.
  • Name the various kinds of imperfections found in the atomic arrangement of materials.
  • Explain "critical resolved shear stress" and its importance in accounting for the plastic deformation of materials.
  • Use the concept of atomic imperfections to describe point defects and grain boundary crystalline defects.
  • Use the concept of atomic diffusion to name and describe industrial processes where materials properties are determined.
  • Name the two mechanisms of diffusion and two types of diffusion.
  • Use microscopes to view various grain structures and imperpections.

Describe what the polymeric materials are, and the general properties for plastics.

Objectives:

  • Specify advantages and disadvantages of plastics when compared with other materials.
  • Define mer, polymer, and degree of polymerization.
  • Cite the differences in behavior for thermosets and thermoplastic materials.
  • Name the three types of stereoisomers.
  • Distinguish between homopolymer and copolymer, and list the four types of copolymers.
  • Explain why plastics have low strength compared to engineering alloys.

Explain the mechanism of solid solution alloys.

Objectives:

  • List the possible levels of solubility for any two crystalline materials.
  • Read diagrams of phase equilibrium to determine freeze and melt temperatures and phase compositions.
  • Calculate the freeze range for specific alloy compositions.
  • Calculate phase compositions and fractional amounts for alloys with partial solubility.

Explain the mechanism of solid solution and dispersion strengthening by solidification.

Objectives:

  • Distinguish between the effects on mechanical properties of the size, shpae, amount, and distribution of precipitate particles.
  • Distinguish between solid solutions, compounds, and pure metals.
  • Distinguish between an ordered and normal (disordered) crystal lattice.
  • Describe the eutectic reaction.
  • Distinguish between the precipitate and matrix micro constituents.

Explain dispersion strengthening by precipitation hardening and alloying.

Objectives:

  • List and explain the steps of precipitation hardening.
  • Give the conditions for an alloy in order for age hardening to be effective.
  • Distinguish between eutectic and eutectoid reactions.
  • Sketch the iron-iron carbide diagram.
  • List all the names and nominal properties of the phases within the iron-iron carbide equilibirum alloy system.

Explain dispersion strengthening by phase transformation, alloying, and heat treatment.

Objectives:

  • Read isothermal transformation diagrams to predict structures and mechanical properties in a specific alloy.
  • Explain the purpose of tempering.
  • Distinguish between hardness and hardenability of steels.
  • Explain: carburizing, nitriding, induction hardening, and carbonitriding.