Advanced OB/GYN SonographyDMS 114
Prerequisites: Prerequisites: DMS 101, DMS 103, DMS 104, and DMS 106, each with a "B" (3.
0) minimum grade, and LW 206A with a "C" (2.0) minimum grade. Concurrent enrollment in DMS 112, DMS 113, DMS 115, DMS 116, and DMS 117. Presents pathology and disease processes, normal and abnormal sonographic patterns, clinical correlation, and differential diagnosis of the obstetrical and gynecologic patient. (30-0)
Outcomes and Objectives
Recognize abnormal sonographic anatomy and pathology of the fetal thorax and abdomen.
- Differentiate between the different types of diaphragmatic hernias.
- Recognize the different abnormalities associated with the fetal lungs.
- Recognize normal and abnormal anatomy of the mediastinum.
- Identify normal fetal abdominal anatomy.
- Explain the following pathologies:
Recognize abnormal sonographic anatomy and pathology of the fetal head and spine.
- Understand embryology of the brain.
- Recognize the difference in sonographic anatomy between the 1st, 2nd, and 3rdtrimesters.
- List the components of ultrasound examination of the fetal head.
- Give parameters for fetal ventricular size and the ventricle-to-hemisphere ratio.
- Discuss the different anomalies.
- Describe the embryology of the neural tube.
- Differentiate between level 1 and level 2 sonogram.
- Explain scanning techniques to image the fetal spine.
- List associated cranial abnormalities associated with spina bifida.
- List associated non-cranial abnormalities associated with spina bifida.
- List associated chromosomal abnormalities associated with spina bifida.
- Define the different anomalies.
Recognize abnormal sonographic anatomy of the fetal urinary tract.
- Discuss embryology of the urinary tract.
- Define amniotic fluid volume.
- Describe the following anomalies:
- Recognize renal neoplasms.
- Discuss scanning techniques to visualize the fetal urinary system.
Recognize and identify high-risk pregnancies and pregnancy complications.
- Discuss the sonographic diagnosis and complications of twin and mutifetal pregnancies.
- Describe the sonographic features of hydrops.
- Differentiate between immune and nonimmune hydrops.
- Discuss prenatal therapy options and prognosis.
- List the three sonographic techniques to evaluate the cervix.
- Identify normal cervical parameters.
- Recognize abnormal cervical appearances.
- Discuss the pitfalls in sonographic diagnosis of the cervix.
- Define incompetent cervix.
- Discuss ultrasound criteria for prediction of preterm labor.
Demonstrate an understanding of the placenta and of placental pathology.
- Understand the normal embryological process of the placenta.
- List normal variations of the placenta.
- Identify intraplacental normal lesions with their sonographic findings.
- Identify intraplacental abnormal lesions with their sonographic findings.
- Describe the three different types of placental creta.
- Recognize normal placental contractions.
- List the three types of antepartum hemorrhage and correlate with sonographic findings.
- Explain the sonographic findings in the different stages of hemorrhage resolution.
Demonstrate the protocol for evaluating the cervix and classify the findings.
- Explain the difference between the transabdominal, transperineal, and transvaginal approach to scanning the cervix.
- List the normal parameters for the cervix.
- Identify abnormal cervical appearances and correlate with outcome of pregnancy.
- Describe the term "incompetent cervix."
- Correlate clinical and sonographic findings in evaluating for preterm labor.
- Understand the clinical implications of ultrasound findings associated with preterm labor.
Demonstrate understanding of the fetal Biophysical Profile scoring method and classify the findings.
- Outline the five parameters of a Biophysical Profile.
- Explain the scoring method for a Biophysical Profile.
- Recognize normal patterns of behavior when performing a Biophysical Profile.
- Correlate the Biophysical Profile score wit clinical results.
- Understand the method of evaluating amniotic fluid.
- Correlate the AFI with gestational parameters.
- Correlate the AFE with clinical outcome.
- Understand basic scanning techniques to obtain an accurate AFI and Biophysical Profile.
- List the criteria for doing a cord doppler.
- Correlate umbilical cord doppler with clinical outcome.
Recognize abnormal sonographic anatomy of the fetal abdominal wall.
- Describe the following anomalies:
- Describe normal physiologic herniation of the abdominal contents during embryology.
- Discuss scanning techniques to differentiate between omphalocele and gastroschisis.
Identify multigestation pregnancies.
- Differentiate between monochorionic and dichorionic pregnancy.
- Differentiate between monoamniotic and diamniotic pregnancy.
- Discuss complications and implications of a multigestation pregnancy.
- Explain twin-twin transfusion.
- Define stuck-twin syndrome.
- Define twin embolization syndrome.
- Discuss conjoined twins.