Dental RadiologyDA 123W
Prerequisites: Prerequisites: DA 106W, DA 113W, DA 117W, and HSC 140 with a "C" (2.
0) minimum grade in each. Concurrent enrollment in DA 123LW. Introduces the principles of radiation physics, factors affecting radiographic images, biological effects of radiation, and the protective measures necessary in dental radiation (30-0)
Outcomes and Objectives
Explain the parallel technique of film placement.
- Explain principle of shadow casting and explain parallel technique.
- Describe patient positioning.
- Describe intraoral placement of film for periapical and bitewing projections.
Explain patient management techniques.
- List behaviors for the dental auxiliary to possess for effective communication and management of adult, child and special patients.
- Describe the common management problem which can be encountered when positioning radiographic films, and give methods to resolve those difficulties.
- List methods used to orient and gain confidence in patients new to radiographic procedures.
- State rationale and value for following the recommended film order for exposure of full mouth surveys.
Describe the bisecting technique and compare to parallel technique.
- State the geometric theory behind bisection of angle techniques.
- State the advantages and disadvantages of bisection.
- Explain patient & film position for bisection.
- State common errors in the bisection technique.
- Compare parallel technique to bisection.
Explain the processing technique, to include chemicals and film pocket.
- Analyze the design, equipment, and lighting specifications for a variety of darkrooms used for manual processing.
- Describe the time-temperature processing method and the five steps to process films.
- Recognize chemicals composing developer and fixer and the function of each.
- Value optimum processing technique by maintaining darkroom and processing chemicals.
- Identify the parts of a radiographic film packet and the function of each part.
- Explain the manufacture of dental film in determining film speed.
- Explain the chemical processing procedure.
Describe the causes and prevention measures of processing errors.
- On slides and radiographs, recognize common processing faults; describe causes and measures to prevent and/or correct the errors.
Explain the legal issues involved with the exposure of radiographs.
- Describe laws pertaining to radiography.
- Describe informed consent, risk management, liability, patient records, and patient refusal.
Identify the importance of quality control.
- Explain the various tests used to check for quality assurance.
- Explain the administrative quality control steps.
- Participate in quality control tests.
Explain the production of radiation.
- Nature of radiation.
- Production of X-rays.
Describe causes and prevention of exposure errors.
- On slides and radiographs, recognize common technique errors; describe causes and measures to prevent and/or correct the errors.
Identify and describe radiographic anatomy and pathology.
- Apply the terminology related to this unit: anatomical landmarks, radiolucent, radiopaque.
- Explain the purpose for the dental assistant to identify landmarks for proper radiographic mounting.
- Describe the procedure universally recommended for mounting dental radiographs and special indicators useful to the mounting technique.
- Describe the densities of tooth tissues and periodontium and the radiographic appearance of each.
- Locate, on a radiograph or slide, the common maxillary and mandibular landmarks and whether each feature is radiopaque or radiolucent.
- Given names of radiographic landmarks, identify which radiopaque projections produce the images.
- Describe landmarks useful to mount edentulous radiographs.
- Identify, on radiographs and slides, radiographic pathologies.
- Describe method to determine location of radiographic pathology.
- Relate the terms radiolucent and radiopaque, to the radiographic pathologies viewed in radiographs.
- Explain the application of bitewing and periapical techniques in the detection and interpretation of caries, retained objects, periodontal disease and traumatic injuries.
- Define the legal and ethical responsibilities and ethical responsibilities of the dental assistant regarding the evaluation and interpretation of radiographs.
Describe purpose and procedures for radiographs on children.
- Describe rationale for and importance of making regular periodic radiographic examinations on child patients.
- Identify factors which determine need for radiographs on children; including appropriate film size and technique.
- Compare patient management techniques involved in exposing radiographs on children and on adults.
- Relate radiation safety measures to pedodontic radiographic technique.
- Describe the exposure technique for primary and mixed dentition.
- Interpret pedodontic radiographs for normal vx, abnormal anatomical features, and features requiring professional follow-up.
Describe purpose and procedures for edentulous techniques.
- Explain rationale and value for exposing radiographs of edentulous areas of the mouth.
- Identify film requirements for an edentulous and a partially edentulous patient.
- Describe the techniques recommended for exposing radiographs on edentulous and partially edentulous patients, including radiation safety measures.
Describe rationale and procedures for accessory film.
- Describe the occlusal technique, and the diagnostic indications for its use.
- Describe the technique for extraoral, lateral jaw projections for detection of third molar impactions and TMJ surveys.
- Describe the uses of panoramic radiographic surveys.
Describe rationale and procedure for perio-bitewings.
- State reasons for exposing perio-bitewings.
- Describe procedures for exposing perio-bitewings.
Explain rationale and measures for radiation health and protection.
- Compare the amount of exposure to the reproductive cells from a full month survey (18 films), to that from background radiation.
- Describe protective measures required by the operator to protect self from radiation exposure.
- Explain the use and value of a monitoring system.
- Describe protective measures required by the operator to protect the patient and other office occupants from radiation exposure.
- Relate acceptable radiation dosages to standard limits for patients and x-ray operators.
- Describe techniques and standards recommended for the reduction of patient exposure to radiation.
- Value patient and operator (self) health and safety by practicing optimum radiation protection techniques.
- Describe the use, diagnostic value and timeliness of radiographs for optimum dental care.
- Relate the biological effects of ionizing radiation to body-tissue health.
- Differentiate between genetic and somatic tissues and the radio-sensitivity of each group of tissues.
- Describe the cumulative effect of radiation.
- Compare chronic and acute overexposure to x-radiation.
- Explain the term "latent period".
- Identify signs and symptoms of overexposure to radiation to somatic and genetic tissues.
- Describe responsible policy regarding the exposure of x-rays of pregnant women.