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Pathophysiology

BIO 280

Pathophysiology

BIO 280

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 3 AND WRITING LEVEL 3 AND MATH LEVEL 3; and BIO 153 with a C or better; or BIO 241 with a C or better; or permission of the instructor.

Provides an overview of abnormal physiological processes leading to human disease. Emphasizes the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic findings and clinical manifestations of specified illnesses. Includes general overviews of risk factors, disease incidences and therapeutic managements as they apply to each pathophysiological condition discussed. Covers in this course include alterations in the nervous, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary systems . (60-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

Understand the basic concepts and processes in pathophysiology.

Objectives:

  • Explain the role of pathophysiology in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
  • Use appropriate terminology.
  • Explain the importance of a patient’s medical history.
  • Describe common cellular adaptations and possible reasons for the occurence of each.
  • Identify precancerous cellular changes.
  • List the common causes of cell damage.
  • Describe the common types of cell necrosis and possible outcomes.

Demonstrate understanding of the blood and immune system disorders.

Objectives:

  • Describe the components of the hematologic system.
  • State the function of each type of cell in the blood.
  • State three major functions of plasma proteins and list the component responsible for each.
  • State the signs of anemia.
  • Describe and compare the pathophysiology, etiology, manifestations, diagnostic tests, and treatment options for each of the selected anemias: pernicious anemia, aplastic, and iron- deficiency, sickle cell, thalassemia.
  • Differentiate between primary and secondary polycythemia, and describe its effect on blood and circulation.
  • Explain the three stages of blood clotting (hemostasis).
  • Describe three causes of excessive bleeding.
  • Describe hemophilia A in symptoms and treatment options.
  • Explain blood clotting disorders as DIC (Disseminated intravascular coagulation) and thrombus furmation.
  • State two purposes of the lymphatic system and explain each.
  • Predict the result of destruction of the lymph nodes in a specific region.
  • State causes for lymphadenopathy.
  • Describe acute infections and its immune responses as in infectious mononucleosis, and tonsillitis.
  • Compare acute and chronic leukemia, including age groups involved, onset, typical blood cell characteristic, symptoms, diagnostic tests, and treatments.
  • Explain bleeding and multiple opportunistic infections are common with leukemia.
  • Describe briefly other disorders of the lymphatic system as multiple myeloma, Hodgkin’s and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas.

Demonstrate understanding of the disorders of the cardiovascular system.

Objectives:

  • Describe the normal anatomy of the cardiovascular system, including heart, arteries, veins and capillaries.
  • Describe coronary vessels and their branches.
  • Describe the propagation of cardiac action potentials in the healthy state.
  • Explain the importance of Calcium and Potassium in the cardiac action.
  • Trace the blood flow through the heart during a single cardiac cycle.
  • Describe coronary artery disease (CAD) or Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD).
  • Differentiate angina pectoris and myocardial infarction with regards to its cause and the characteristic of pain associated with it.
  • State the factors predisposing to atherosclerosis.
  • Outline the conduction system in a healthy state and compare it to common arrhythmias and cardiac arrest.
  • Explain the effect on blood flow in valve incompetence.
  • Discuss the causes of congestive heart failure and the effects of left-sided and right-sided failure.
  • Describe the pathophysiology of rheumatic heart disease, infectious endocarditis and pericarditis.
  • Explain the changes in blood flow and their effects in congenital heart diseases.
  • State the factors that can cause elevated blood pressure (essential hypertension).
  • Describe the long-term effects of untreated hypertension.
  • Compare the arterial peripheral vascular diseases: atherosclerosis, Raynaud’s disease, and aneurysms.
  • Discuss the common changes in heart and arteries.
  • Define and explain the term intermittend claudication.
  • Describe the development and effects of the venous disorders varicose veins, phlebothrombosis, and thrombophlebitis.
  • Describe the types of shock, symptoms of shock onset, and the effects on the body.
  • Explain why acidosis develops in shock.

Demonstrate understanding of the respiratory system disorders.

Objectives:

  • Describe the normal anatomy of the respiratory system and differentiate between upper and lower respiratory tract.
  • Describe the process of ventilation and gas exchange.
  • Describe common upper respiratory tract infections as example in common cold, sinusitis, laryngotracheobronchitis (Croup), epiglottitis, influenza (flu).
  • Describe common lower respiratory tract infections as example in pneumonia, tuberculosis
  • Compare the different types of pneumonia.
  • Differentiate the effect of primary to secondary tuberculosis.
  • Describe the pathophysiology and complications of obstructive lung diseases as example in cystic fibrosis lung cancer and asthma.
  • Describe the possible outcomes of aspiration.
  • Compare the types of asthma and describe the pathophysiology and manifestation in an acute attack.
  • Describe the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases as example in emphysema, chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis.
  • Compare obstructive from restrictive lung disorders.
  • Describe the causes of pulmonary edema and how it effects oxygen levels.
  • Compare the effects of the size of pulmonary emboli.
  • Describe the causes of atelectasis and the resulting effects on ventilation and oxygen levels.
  • Explain the effects of pleural effusion on ventilation.
  • Compare the types of pneumothorax.
  • Explain how a flail chest injury affects ventilation, oxygen levels, and circulation.
  • Describe the causes and pathophysiology of adult respiratory distress syndrome.
  • Describe the etiology and changes in blood gases with acute respiratory failure.
  • Describe respiratory patterns as a result of respiratory disorders.

Demonstrate understanding of the digestive system disorders.

Objectives:

  • Describe the normal anatomy of the digestive system.
  • Describe how these organs interact in digestion.
  • List common manifestations of digestive system disorders.
  • Describe the various causes of vomiting and the vomiting process.
  • Differentiate diarrhea from constipation.
  • Explain the common causes of dysphagia.
  • Differentiate the different types of hiatal hernias and explain their effects.
  • List the causes of acute gastritis and describe the common signs.
  • Compare the effects of acute gastritis, chronic gastritis and gastroenteritis.
  • Describe the etiology, the signs, and possible complications of peptic ulcers.
  • Describe the early signs of gastric cancer.
  • Explain how dumping syndrome develops and list the signs associated with the syndrome.
  • Describe how gallstones develop and the signs of obstruction.
  • Differentiate the types of jaundice.
  • Compare the types of infectious hepatitis.
  • Describe the common manifestations of hepatitis.
  • Differentiate the types of cirrhosis.
  • Describe the pathophysiology of cirrhosis.
  • Describe the pathophysiology, signs, and possible complications of acute pancreatitis.
  • Describe signs of malabsorption in example of celiac disease.
  • Compare Crohn’s disease with ulcerative colitis.
  • Compare Crohn’s disease with ulcerative colitis.
  • Differentiate mechanical from paralytical ileus.
  • Differentiate the different causes of peritonitis and describe its pathophysiology.

Demonstrate understanding of the urinary system disorders.

Objectives:

  • Describe the normal anatomy and physiology of the urinary system (i.e.: urine production, pathway of urine and control of urinary flow).
  • Describe filtration, diffusion and secretion as basic steps in urine formation.
  • List main diagnostic tests to recognize urinary disorders.
  • Compare the etiology, pathophysiology, and manifestations of cystitis and pyelonephritis as examples of urinary tract infections.
  • Describe the pathophysiology, of inflammatory diseases of the kidneys i.e. glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome.
  • Explain the common signs of urinary tract obstruction.
  • Explain the effects of vascular disorders of the kidney on kidney function and systemic blood pressure.
  • Compare acute and chronic renal failure with regards to common causes, pathophysiology, symptoms, and possible complications.

Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base imbalances.

Objectives:

  • Explain the movement of water between body compartments resulting in edema.
  • Describe the causes and effects of dehydration.
  • Describe the causes and signs of hypo-, and hypernatremia, hypo- and hyperkalemia, hypo- and hypercalcemia.
  • Explain metabolic acidosis and alkalosis, and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis, symptoms and effects on the body.
  • Explain the compensation reactions in respiratory and metabolic acidosis and alkalosis.

Develop a case study involving at least 3 major body systems.

Objectives:

  • Work as a team to develop a case study.
  • Research the disease and effected body to understand the medical condition of the individual.
  • Present the case to class.

Recognize common biological themes in case studies.

Objectives:

  • Demonstrate understanding of structure and function of the human body and its organ systems.
  • Develop ability to integrate this knowledge to clinical case.
  • Develop skills in using materials, tools and/or technology central to this subject.
  • Apply knowledge to differentiate between healthy and not healthy state.
  • Understand the language of anatomy and physiology and apply this language in communication with patients and the medical team.
  • Communicate effectively in writing and speaking in front of a specific audience.
  • Work productively with others in a team.

Demonstrate understanding of the effect of immobility.

Objectives:

  • Describe the possible effect of immobility on skeletal muscle, bone, and joints.
  • Discuss the development of decubitus ulcers.
  • Explain the changes in blood pressure and potential thrombus formation.
  • List the potential problems related to respiratory function.
  • Discuss the common effects of immobility on appetite, bowel function, and urinary function.
  • Describe the metabolic and structural changes in tissues in aging.

Demonstrate understanding of the effect stress and related diseases.

Objectives:

  • Describe the stress response.
  • Explain how the stress response is related to disease.
  • Describe how severe stress may lead to acute renal failure, stress ulcers, and myocardial infarction.
  • Suggest positive coping strategies.

Demonstrate understanding of acute and chronic pain, and pain management.

Objectives:

  • State causes of pain.
  • Compare acute and chronic pain.
  • Describe the pain pathway.
  • List several factors that alter the perception of pain and the response to pain.
  • Describe methods of pain management

Demonstrate understanding of categories, causes, symptoms and treatment options of neurological disorders.

Objectives:

  • Describe the normal anatomy of the nervous system, and its division into CNS and PNS.
  • Describe the normal physiology of the system.
  • Explain the importance of the myelin sheath in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
  • Review the blood supply to the brain and the Circle of Willis (cerebral arterial circle).
  • Review resting membrane potential, action potential, refractory period.
  • Illustrate an understanding of the ANS and its parts.
  • Describe causes and clinical manifestations of cerebrovascular disorders.
  • Explain intracranial aneurysm and subarachnoidal hemorrhage.
  • Describe causes and clinical signs of infections of the CNS as in meningitis and encephalitis.
  • Describe CNS trauma , coup and countercoup head injury after blunt trauma and spinal cord trauma.
  • Describe congenital neurological disorders as hydrocephalus, spina bifida, and cerebral palsy.
  • Differentiate between types of seizures.
  • Explain how seizures develop and possible precipitating factors.
  • Identify following disorders as chronic degenerative diseases: Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Myasthenia Gravis, and Huntington's disease.
  • Describe the common effects of Multiple Sclerosis.
  • Relate the pathophysiology to the signs of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Explain how Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis affects motor function.
  • Describe the pathophysiology of Myasthenia Gravis and its effects on the body.
  • Identify different forms of dementia as Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia.
  • Describe the changes in brain as in Alzheimer’s disease develops and the effects on function.
  • Describe the etiology and symptoms of a herniated intervertebral disc.

Demonstrate understanding of the structure and function of the endocrine system in a healthy state and in endocrine disorders.

Objectives:

  • Describe the different glands of the endocrine system and its hormones.
  • Explain the mechanism of hormonal regulation by negative feedback mechanism or by the hypothalamus/ pituitary system under normal and abnormal conditions.
  • Differentiate type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • Explain the early signs of diabetes.
  • Compare the causes and development of hypo- and hyperglycemia.
  • Describe the common degenerative effects of diabetes mellitus.
  • Explain the relationship between parathyroid hormone and calcium and their changes with various disorders.
  • List the causes and effects of diabetes insipidus and inappropriate ADH syndrome.
  • Describe the causes of goiter.
  • Describe the effects of an excess and deficit of thyroid hormones.
  • List the possible causes of Cushing’s syndrome.
  • Compare the effects of Cushing’s and Addison’s diseases.
  • Discuss the effects of hormonal changes in aging.

Explain concepts of inflammation and healing.

Objectives:

  • Explain the role of normal defenses in preventing diseases.
  • Describe how changes in capillary exchange affect the tissues and the blood.
  • Compare normal capillary exchange with exchange during the inflammatory response.
  • Describe the local and systemic effects of inflammation.
  • Explain the effects of chronic inflammation.
  • Discuss the modes of treatment of inflammation.
  • Describe the types of healing and list the factors that affect healing.
  • Identify the classification of burns, describe the effects of burns and possible complications.

Explain concepts of immunity and abnormal responses.

Objectives:

  • Describe the normal immune response.
  • List the components of the immune system and describe the function of each.
  • Discuss tissue transplant rejection and treatment options.
  • Describe the four types of hypersensitivity reactions.
  • Discuss the mechanism of autoimmune disorders in general and in example of systemic lupus erythematodes..
  • Explain the causes and effects of immunodeficiency in general and use the example of AIDS.

Discuss principles of infection and its causative agents.

Objectives:

  • Indicate following as causative agents of infections: bacteria, viruses, chlamydiae, rickettsia, mycoplasmas, fungi, and parasites.
  • Describe their basic characteristics.
  • Explain resident(normal) flora and its purpose.
  • Describe the methods of transmitting microbes.
  • List the factors determining host resistance.
  • Explain the factors contributing to pathogenicity and virulence of microbes.
  • Discuss the factors preventing and controlling infections.
  • Describe typical, local, and systemic signs of infection.
  • Describe the mechanism of actions of antimicrobial drugs.
  • Discuss examples of infections as respiratory influenza (Flu), including cause, transmission, immunization, incidence, manifestations , and possible complications.
  • Explain increased incidence of infections and cancer in aging.