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Physiology

BIO 241

Physiology

BIO 241

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 2 AND WRITING LEVEL 2 AND MATH LEVEL 5; and BIO 171 and BIO 240 or permission of instructor.

Requires background in anatomy and chemistry. Studies the functional integration of the major organ systems of animals, with special emphasis on the human body. Emphasizes the ways in which the various systems interact to maintain homeostasis of the individual. Illustrates through laboratory experiments both classical and modern approaches to the physiology of various organ systems. (45-45)

Outcomes and Objectives

Demonstrate an understanding of homeostasis and system integration.

Objectives:

  • Define homeostasis
  • Identify the stimulus, the mechanism and the response in a feedback system.
  • Define negative feedback and describe its role in maintaining body homeostasis.
  • Define positive feedback and explain why it usually causes homeostatic imbalance. Also note specific situations in which it contributes to homeostasis, or normal body function.
  • Explain the significance of homeostasis for living systems.
  • Describe how positive and negative feedback are involved in homeostatic regulation.
  • Apply the stimulus-mechanism-response model to at least two specific homeostatic disruptions (example: increase in blood calcium levels; increase in body temperature).

Demonstrate an understanding of the mechanisms involved in the respiratory cycle.

Objectives:

  • Identify and define the terms associated with spirometry; i.e. tidal volume, etc.
  • Explain the correlation between pressure and volume of gases.
  • Describe surfactant and its function in respiration.
  • Relate the effects of increased levels of CO2 in the plasma and the corresponding drop in Ph in the CSF to an increase in respirations.
  • Correlate atmospheric pressure, intrapulmonic pressure, and intra-pleural pressures with inhalation and exhalation.
  • Compare the contrast the roles that increased CO2 levels and decreased O2 levels have on respirations.
  • Explain why the death of premature infants from RDS has been dramatically reduced in the last ten years.
  • Explain why emphysema patients appear to have enlarged thoracic volume and yet exhibit respiratory problems.

Discuss the principles of diffusion as they relate to respiratory gases.

Objectives:

  • Relate the general laws relative to diffusion of gases.
  • Define the concept of partial pressure of gases in a mixture.
  • Relate partial pressure of gases with diffusion of O2 and CO2 at the alveolus and at the tissue level.

Explain the ways that the erythrocyte is involved with the transport of O2, CO2, CO, and H+.

Objectives:

  • Relate the structure of the hemoglobin molecule to its ability to transport O2 as oxyhemoglobin.
  • Relate the structure of the hemoglobin molecule to its ability to transport CO2 as carbamino hemoglobin.
  • Relate the structure of the hemoglobin molecule to its ability to carry H+.
  • Relate the structure of the hemoglobin molecule to its ability to react with CO as carbohemoglobin.
  • Relate the presence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) with the role the RBC plays in CO2 transport as plasma HCO3-.
  • Explain and show by diagram the effect that pH has on O2 carrying capacity by the hemoglobin molecule.
  • Explain the effect that temperature has on the O2 carrying capacity of the hemoglobin molecule.
  • Explain the effect that CO2 concentration has on the O2 carrying capacity of the hemoglobin molecule.
  • Explain the effect that O2 concentration has on the O2 carrying capacity of the hemoglobin molecule.
  • Provide the series of reactions that demonstrate the connections at the alveolar level between the unloading by the hemoglobin molecule and the plasma of CO2 and the subsequent loading of O2.
  • Provide the series of reactions that demonstrate the biochemical connections at the tissue level between the loading of the hemoglobin molecule with H+ and CO2 and subsequent unloading of the O2 molecules.
  • Explain why hyperventilation can lead to respiratory alkalosis.
  • Explain why hemoglobin can be considered as an acid buffer.

Demonstrate familiarity with the process of the formation of urine.

Objectives:

  • Define the three major processes in urine formation.
  • Explain the various forces that affect the rate of filtrate formation in the glomerulus.
  • Explain tubular reabsorption.
  • Tubular secretion.
  • Predict the effect on glomerular filtrate formation based on blood pressure changes, plasma protein concentration changes, stress, and higher than normal blood sugar levels.
  • Identify what major components of the glomerular filtrate are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule and through what process.
  • Identify the major biochemicals that are actually secreted into the filtrate and where the effect on the composition of the filtrate and urine.

Demonstrate familiarity with those processes that assist in the concentration of the filtrate.

Objectives:

  • Discuss the effect on filtrate concentration in relation to the reabsorption of biochemicals from the proximal convoluting tubule.
  • Identify the hormone ADD as to where produced, target tissue, and the overall effects of this hormone.
  • Explain the counter-current mechanism.
  • Relate the processes occurring in the Loop of Henle relative to the counter-current mechanism with the effect of ADD on the distal and collecting tubules or with the overall concentration of urine.

Demonstrate familiarity with the role that the nephron plays in regulating the pH of the plasma.

Objectives:

  • Write and explain the chemical reactions that relate to both the phosphate buffer system.
  • Write and explain the chemical reactions that relate to the formation of ammonium ions in the nephron tubules.
  • Explain the ways in which the phosphate buffer system can assist in acidifying the urine.
  • Explain the ways in which the formation of ammonium ion can assist in acidifying the urine.
  • Relate the effects of long term stress on a patient relative to kidney function.

Demonstrate familiarity with the hormones that affect the functions of the urinary system.

Objectives:

  • Describe where produced, target tissue of hormone, what triggers the hormone's release and what slows down or turns off this hormone release:
  • Explain the differences in either the composition of the resultant urine formed or the rate at which urine is formed under the influence of aldosterone, parahormone, renin, and epinephrine.
  • Explain why having just one arcuate artery blockage could lead to acute hypertension.

Demonstrate familiarity with urinalysis.

Objectives:

  • Detail the different tests that make up a complete urinalysis.
  • Explain what the normal parameters are for a routine urinalysis.
  • Use terms that are used to describe abnormal urines; i.e. glycosuria, pyuria, etc.
  • Relate abnormal findings on a urinalysis with possible diagnoses.

Demonstrate familiarity with the distribution of body fluids.

Objectives:

  • Identify the different fluid compartments of the body.
  • Identify the differing levels of significant materials to the human body that are found in the intracellular vs. extracellular compartments.

Demonstrate familiarity with the mechanisms for the regulation of water balance.

Objectives:

  • Discuss the water intake vs. water output on a 24 hour basis.
  • Relate the details of the thirst mechanism.
  • Review the role of ADD and osmoreceptor to overall water balance.

Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between anatomy and physiology in the human body.

Objectives:

  • Define physiology and describe various specialties of each discipline.
  • Name (in order of increasing complexity) the different levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and explain their relationships.
  • List the 11 organ systems of the body and briefly explain the major function(s) of each system.
  • Describe at least two examples in the human body of form following function.

Demonstrate familiarity with the concept of electrolyte balance.

Objectives:

  • Discuss the mechanisms whereby the human body maintains the appropriate electrolyte balance for the following electrolytes: Na+, K+, Cl-, Mg++, Ca++, PO4 -3, and SO4-3

Demonstrate familiarity with the concept of acid-base balance.

Objectives:

  • Relate the sources of hydrogen ions and the overall effect that these would have on the system without a mechanism to control them.
  • Write the reactions for, explain the following buffer system, and locate where these systems are most important in the body:
  • Define and provide medical reasons for the following: metabolic acidosis or alkalosis and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.

Demonstrate a functional understanding of the lymphatic system physiology.

Objectives:

  • List the functions of the lymphatic system.
  • Define Starling's Law of the Capillary
  • Define edema and list several causes of edema.
  • Describe the factors that result in lymph flow.
  • Explain the role of the following associated organs to the lymphatic system: spleen, tonsils, and thymus.
  • Describe the cause of Agammaglobulin anemia.
  • Relate how changes in exercise affects Starling's Law of the Capillary and resulting lymph formation and flow.
  • Apply Starling's Law of the Capillary to explain how edema results from blocked lymph channels, heart malfunction, and alter capillary permeability.

Describe how the body defends itself from disease and parasites.

Objectives:

  • Define the following: primary defense, secondary defense, cellular immunity, humoral immunity, lymphocytes, macrophages, and phagocytosis.
  • List the body's methods of primary defense and stages of secondary defense.
  • List the characteristics of inflammation.
  • Identify two stages of phagocytosis.
  • Explain the role of the skin and mucous membranes in body defense.
  • Describe how inflammation functions to protect the body and how it can be detrimental in cases of injury and arthritis.
  • Explain how the different types of T and B lymphocytes work together to protect the body from parasites and disease organisms.
  • Relate the four stages of immunity and the cells involved to an infection from parasites, viruses, bacteria, and the Aids Virus.

Define the role of hormones that control digestion and absorption

Objectives:

  • Define hormone, target organ, calorie, catabolism, anabolism, and metabolism.
  • Discuss the functions of the following hormones on the digestive system: gastrin, enterogastrone, secretin, cholecystokinin, pancreozymin, and villikinin.

Describe the process of mechanical and chemical digestion.

Objectives:

  • Define enzyme, mechanical and chemical digestion, segmentation, mass peristalsis, and gastrocolic reflex.
  • List the major enzymes used by the digestive system.
  • Explain the action of the major enzymes of the digestive system while identifying the substrate acted upon and required environmental conditions for their function.
  • Describe the role of the liver in the digestive process.
  • Given any organic molecule, be able to trace the chemical and mechanical digestion process through the digestion system naming enzymes and actions.

Demonstrate an understanding of the digestive system functions that result in nutrient absorption by the body.

Objectives:

  • Define absorption, villi, microvilli, and sinusoids.
  • Explain the absorptive role, or lack thereof, of each part of the digestive system.
  • Describe the role of the liver in the absorptive process using the following terms: glycogenesis, glyconeogenesis, deamination, transamination and lipogenesis.
  • Analyze absorptive processes and interactions of metabolism for that molecule in relation to the digestive system and accessory organs.

Demonstrate a basic knowledge of vitamins

Objectives:

  • Define vitamin, water-soluble, and fat-soluble.
  • Categorize vitamins D, E, A, K, B1, B2, B6, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid, as to fat or water soluble, their major function, excess or deficiency problems, and a possible dietary source for Folic Acid, B12, and C.

Demonstrate an understanding of cardiac muscle tissue.

Objectives:

  • Relate the following terms: myogenic, self excitation, inherent rhythmicity, syncytium, cell to cell stimulation, long absolute refractory.

Demonstrate an understanding of the physiology of the heart.

Objectives:

  • Predict the change in left heart activity if the myocardium shows atrophy.
  • Differentiate left and right parts of a heart ventricle.

Demonstrate familiarity with the organs of the respiratory system and its functions.

Objectives:

  • Discuss the functions of the major components of the respiratory system.
  • Discuss relationship between movement of diaphragm and the volume of thoracic cavity.
  • Discuss relationship between movement of external intercostal and the volume of thoracic cavity.
  • Discuss relationship between movement of internal and external intercostals and rectus abdominis and the volume of the thoracic cavity.
  • Describe the effects on the pleural cavity and lung function as result of pneumothorax.
  • Explain the way in which sounds are produced by the vocal cords

Describe the Action Potential of Cardiac Muscle.

Objectives:

  • Define action potential, absolute refractory, and relative refractory
  • Compare and contrast the nerve action potential to the cardiac muscle action potential
  • Describe the role of Na+ and K+ in the heart muscle action potential
  • Describe the role of Ca++ in the heart action potential
  • Suggest the advantage of a long refractory period to the heart
  • Indicate on a graph of a normal cardiac muscle action potential, what effect EDTA (Ca++ binding agent) would have.
  • Design an experiment that would show the effects of changes in Ca++ concentration and contraction of cardiac muscle

Demonstrate an understanding of how the heart beats.

Objectives:

  • Define myogenic, syncytium, and conductive tissue.
  • Illustrate and label the conductive pathway.
  • Describe the role of the components of the conductive pathway: SA node, internodal fibers, AV node, Bundle of His, bundle branch fibers, Purkinje.'
  • Describe how the signal passes from SA node to myocardium for contraction of the cardiac muscle.
  • Describe what change would be expected in the length of the signal with minor damage to the Bundle of His.
  • Design an experiment that proves the SA node is a necessary factor in heart rate conduction.

Demonstrate an understanding of the EKG.

Objectives:

  • Define EKG.
  • Label and identify the components of an EKG.
  • Define the components of the EKG.
  • Define the segments and intervals of the EKG.
  • Describe how to read an EKG.
  • Describe normal lengths for each of the segments/intervals.
  • Relate the EKG pattern to the activity of the heart during conduction of the signal from SA node to AV node
  • Describe what change would be expected in the EKG Given a minor damage to the Bundle of His.
  • Describe what change would be expected in the EKG given a minor damage to the left bundle branch.
  • Design an experiment that relaters SA node rate to change in P-R interval

Explain the factors that affect heart rate.

Objectives:

  • Define the autonomic nervous system (ANS).
  • Describe the components of the ANS with respect to division, location, type of neurotransmitter.
  • Indicate what effect ions have on heart muscle.
  • Indicate what affect stress, age, and gender have on heart muscle.
  • Indicate what effect temperature has on heart muscle.
  • Discuss the role of Ca++ on heart muscle contraction and rate.
  • Discuss the role of temperature on heart muscle contraction and rate.
  • Discuss the role of stress on heart muscle contraction and rate.
  • Discuss the role of age on heart muscle contraction and rate.
  • Design an experiment would differentiate the effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on rate of contraction.

Describe arrhythmic conditions of the heart.

Objectives:

  • Define rhythmic and arrhythmias.
  • Define the following terms related to arrhythmias: tachycardia, bradycardia, ectopic beats, flutter, fibrillation, SA and AV nodal block, murmurs.
  • Describe three factors that might cause a tachycardia.
  • Suggest the sound a tachycardia would produce vs that of a bradycardia.
  • Relate the occurrence of tachycardia to movement of the signal from SA node to myocardium.
  • Predict how ectopic beats would look on an EKG.
  • Diagnose via EKG the following: mitral stenosis, rheumatic fever, myocardial infarct (MI), enlarged ventricle, acute MI , ischemia, AV blocks.
  • Design an experiment that would test the effect of Verapamil on bradycardia.

Demonstrate an understanding of how the valves work.

Objectives:

  • Name the 4 functional valves found in the heart.
  • Define flow and pressure.
  • Describe how the ventricle establishes Pressure differences.
  • Differentiate between semilunar and atrioventricular valves.
  • Describe the state(relaxed, contracted) of the ventricle necessary to open and close the 2 types of valves.
  • Discuss how a semilunar valve may be placed in the heart to serve as a temporary tricuspid..
  • Describe an experiment that would show the effects of valve prolapse on flow of blood through heart.

Describe the heart's role in receiving and delivering blood to the tissues.

Objectives:

  • Name the chambers and structures blood passes as it moves from right heart to left heart.
  • Define the role of the atrium in heart function.
  • Define the role of the ventricle in heart function.
  • Define the role of the valves.
  • Describe how the ventricles are responsible for pushing blood through the heart.
  • Describe why blood moves from right to left.
  • Predict the flow of blood in an adult heart if there is an opening in the interventricular wall.
  • Predict how blood will move if a person suffers a severe right heart infarction.
  • Design an experiment that would differentiate the value of the atria vs the ventricle in blood vessel delivery.

Describe vessels of the circulatory system.

Objectives:

  • Define artery, vein, and capillary.
  • Describe the anatomy of an artery, a vein, and a capillary.
  • Describe the flow of blood through a capillary bed.
  • Describe the path of blood from heart to stomach.
  • Describe the path of blood from right thumb to right index finger.
  • Describe the path of blood from digestive tract to left carotid artery.
  • Describe the path of blood to all parts of the brain.
  • Describe coronary venous blood flow.
  • Describe coronary arterial blood flow.
  • Relate structure of an artery to its function.
  • Relate structure of a vein to its function.
  • Relate structure of a capillary to its function.
  • Predict effect on coronary flow if the LAD is blocked.
  • Design an experiment that would relate muscle thickness to artery function

Demonstrate knowledge of the role blood vessels play in delivering blood to tissues.

Objectives:

  • Define the direction blood moves in an artery.
  • Define the direction blood moves in a vein.
  • Define Starling's Law of Capillary.
  • Define capillary osmotic pressure, capillary hydrostatic pressure, and interstitial hydrostatic pressure.
  • Define blood volume, blood pressure, and Korotkoff sounds.
  • Define systolic pressure vs diastolic pressure.
  • Define sphygmomanometer.
  • Describe how a sphygmomanometer works.
  • Describe how one measures blood pressure
  • Describe how the values are derived.
  • Describe what the systolic and diastolic pressure mean
  • Describe the forces that act to promote exchange across the venous end of a capillary.
  • Describe the forces that act to promote exchange across the arterial end of a capillary.
  • Relate blood volume to blood pressure.
  • Predict what will happen to blood flow if the elastic layer in a vessel is damaged.
  • Design an experiment that will define what will happen to exchange if an Interstitial osmotic pressure arises.

Demonstrate an understanding of some pathologies associated with vessel function.

Objectives:

  • Define hypertension.
  • Define essential hypertension.
  • Define functional hypertension.
  • Define arteriosclerosis
  • Define aneurysms.
  • Define shock.
  • Describe a treatment for arteriosclerosis.
  • Describe the types of shock.
  • Compare and contrast types of shock.
  • Discuss the effects of aneurysms on blood pressure
  • Discuss effect of smoking on hypertension
  • Predict what effect an increased peripheral resistance on arteriosclerotic vessels.
  • Design an experiment that would show the relationship between peripheral resistance and development of shock

Demonstrate familiarity with the microscopic anatomy of the respiratory system and the functions.

Objectives:

  • Explain the relationship between the capillary bed and the alveolus.
  • Explain the function of the ciliated pseudostratified epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract as it relates to serving as a mechanical barrier to antigens and particulate matter in the air.

Demonstrate knowledge of fetal circulation.

Objectives:

  • Define foramen ovale, ductus venosus, ductus arteriosus, umbilicus, and the role of the placenta.
  • Describe the route of blood through fetal heart through placenta back to fetal heart.
  • Describe the changes of the ductus venosus after birth.
  • Describe the changes of the ductus arteriosus after birth.
  • Discuss the changes in fetal structures after birth.
  • Predict the outcome in the newborn if the foramen ovale fails to close.
  • Design an experiment that would explain the role of the umbilicus on fetal blood flow.

Demonstrate an understanding of the factors that affect mean arterial pressure.

Objectives:

  • Define Starling's law of heart, contractility, and peripheral resistance.
  • Define carotid/aortic sinuses, pressoreceptors, cardiac output, and stroke volume.
  • Describe how the pressoreceptors respond to increased volume of blood leaving the heart.
  • Explain the role of the aortic/carotid sinuses.
  • Predict what will happen to cardiac output if ventricular atrophy occurs Determine the activity of the pressoreceptors if constriction of the artery occurs.
  • Calculate heart rate if given the cardiac output and stroke volume.
  • Relate Starling's Law to stroke volume.
  • Predict the change in peripheral resistance if heart rate increases.
  • Design an experiment that would show the relationship between blood pressure and peripheral resistance.
  • Design an experiment that would show the relationship between ventricular filling and change in stroke volume.

Demonstrate knowledge of male reproductive physiology and related pathologies.

Objectives:

  • Define the role of the pituitary in male reproduction.
  • List the hormones from the pituitary that control the male tract.
  • List the cell of the testes that respond to pituitary hormones.
  • Define negative feedback and spermatogenesis.
  • Describe the response of the Sertoli and Leydig cells to pituitary hormones.
  • Discuss how these two cells participate in a negative feedback with the pituitary.
  • Describe the role of testosterone on the male system.
  • Describe the role of Sertoli.
  • Describe the role of the Leydig cells.
  • Predict symptoms that would occur in the male if the Sertoli or Leydig cells were removed.
  • Design an experiment that would relate levels of testosterone with spermatogenesis.

Demonstrate knowledge of female reproductive physiology and related pathologies.

Objectives:

  • Define the role of the pituitary in female reproduction.
  • List the hormones from the pituitary that control the female tract.
  • Name the areas of the ovary that respond to pituitary hormones.
  • Define oogenesis, ovulation, and menstruation.
  • Describe the response of the granulosa and theca cells to pituitary hormones.
  • Discuss how these two structures participate in a negative feedback with the pituitary.
  • Describe the role of estrogen , progesterone and testosterone on the female system.
  • Describe the changes in the levels of pituitary hormones that occur in each menstrual month.
  • Describe the role of these hormones on ovulation.
  • Describe the role of these hormones on menstruation.
  • Design an experiment that would relate levels of testosterone on ovulation.
  • Construct a word model to depict ovulation.
  • Predict some symptoms that might occur if a female loses estrogen.
  • Given a hormone level in blood from a female patient, predict the stage of menstruation.

Demonstrate knowledge of pregnancy and related pathologies.

Objectives:

  • Define contraception, pregnancy, implantation, gestation, placenta, and partuition.
  • Describe the role of the uterus in pregnancy.
  • Describe the role of the cervix during pregnancy.
  • Describe the changes in the uterus that occur as a result of pregnancy.
  • Describe the stages of the egg from fertilization to birth.
  • Describe the role of the female hormones in preparation of the uterus.
  • Describe the role of the vaginal tract in pregnancy.
  • Describe the hormonal state of a pregnant female.
  • Describe the hormones produced by the placenta and the role they play.
  • Describe the role of the placenta during gestation.
  • Describe some key changes in each month of gestation.
  • Describe the role of the developing embryo in maintaining the conceptus before the development of the placenta.
  • Describe the negative feedback between uterus and pituitary during pregnancy.
  • Describe the negative feedback between uterus and ovary during pregnancy.
  • Predict the changes in pregnancy if progesterone levels drop.
  • Compare and contrast the hormonal state of a 1 month pregnant female to that of a non-pregnant female.
  • Design an experiment to determine the role of the embryo in pregnancy.

Demonstrate knowledge of lactation and related pathologies.

Objectives:

  • Define lactation, mammary tissue, and myoepithelial cells.
  • Define the role of the hypothalamus and pituitary in lactation.
  • Define the role of the hypothalamus and pituitary.
  • Describe the route of milk from gland to outside.
  • Describe the negative feedback between mammary and pituitary.
  • Describe the role of prolactin in milk production.
  • Describe the role of oxytocin in milk ejection.
  • Describe the role off P.H. and PAL in control of lactation.
  • Describe the role of the female hormones in lactation.
  • Predict what would happen to lactation if progesterone levels were low.
  • Design an experiment that would show the role of the hypothalamus in lactation.
  • Predict what would happen to mammary tissue if only estrogen were present.

Demonstrate an ability to inter-relate the anatomy and physiology of the five major senses in humans.

Objectives:

  • List the items that sensation involves: receptor, transmission, CNS decoding.
  • Locate the receptors for olfaction and describe the neural pathway for odor detection.
  • Recognize that smell rapidly adapts.
  • Identify the gustatory receptors and describe the neural path ways for taste.
  • Recognize that smell, texture, and temperature are important in "taste".
  • Recognize that sour, sweet, salty and bitter are basic taste sensations (modalities).
  • Explain the structure and physiology of the accessory visual structures.
  • List the structural divisions of the eye.
  • Define emmetropia, myopia, hypermetropia, and astigmatism.
  • Identify the afferent pathway of light impulses to the brain.
  • Define the anatomical subdivisions of the ear.
  • List the principal events in the physiology of hearing.
  • Identify the receptor organs for equilibrium.
  • Understand the causes and symptoms of some common disorders of the senses such as: cataracts, glaucoma, conjunctivitis, trachoma, deafness, labyrinthine disease, Meniers's syndrome, impacted cerumen, otitis media and motion sickness.
  • Describe a theory for the molecular mechanism of odor detection.
  • Discuss retinal image formation by describing refraction, accommodation, constriction of the pupil, convergence, and inverted image formation.
  • Diagram and discuss the rhodopsin cycle responsible for light sensitivity of rods.
  • Describe the three cone theory for color vision.
  • Compare and contrast rods and cones physiologically.
  • Discuss the processes involved in maintaining static and dynamic equilibrium.
  • Describe nystagmus and explain why it occurs.
  • Inter-relate functioning of the CNS with integration of sensory input.

Demonstrate an understanding of the function and anatomy of the endocrine system.

Objectives:

  • Define an endocrine gland and list the endocrine glands of the body including: pituitary, pineal, thyroid, thymus, adrenals, ovaries, testes, kidneys, placenta, skin, and pancreas.
  • Distinguish between proteinaceous and steroid hormones and their actions.
  • Identify the role of prostaglandins in hormonal action.
  • List the hormones of the adenohypophysis and their principal actions.
  • Identify the location and hormonal actions of the: thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal (suprarenal) glands (cortical and medullary portions with their associated hormones), pancreas, pineal gland, ovaries and testes.
  • identify the function of the adrenal medullary secretions as supplements of sympathetic responses.
  • Describe the relationship between the endocrine system and the nervous system in maintaining homeostasis.
  • Discuss the functions of the endocrine system in maintaining homeostasis.
  • Describe the control of hormonal secretions via feedback cycles and explain several examples.
  • Describe the structural and functional division of the pituitary gland into the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis.
  • Discuss how the pituitary gland the hypothalamus are structurally and functionally related.
  • Describe the release of hormones stored in the neurohypophysis and their principal actions.
  • Describe the location and hormonal action of the thymus gland its role in immunity.
  • Explain why portions of the gastrointestinal tract, placenta, kidneys, and skin are considered as endocrine structures.
  • Discuss the symptoms of pituitary gland disorders.
  • Discuss some common disorders of the endocrine system (ex: cretinism, myxedema, exophthalmic goiter, Grave's disease, aldosteronism, Addison's disease, Cushing's syndrome, adrenogenital syndrome and compare homeostatic responses and stress responses.
  • Define the general adaptation syndrome and compare homeostatic responses and stress responses.
  • Identify the body reactions during the alarm, resistance, and exhaustion stages of stress.

Describe the functions of the subcomponents of blood (vascular tissue).

Objectives:

  • Define the principal physical characteristics of blood and its functions in the body.
  • List the structural features and types of leukocytes.
  • Describe some common laboratory techniques used to analyze blood (ex hematocrit, RBC count and Differential WBC count).
  • List the components of plasma and explain their importance.
  • Identify the stages involved in blood clotting.
  • Identify the sites of RBC production in the embryo, young child, and adult.
  • Identify different kinds of blood cells from slides.
  • Compare and contrast the general roles of blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid in maintaining homeostasis.
  • Compare and contrast the origins of the formed elements in blood.

Discuss how the vascular system is physiologically involved in homeostasis of the body.

Objectives:

  • List the major functions of blood in humans.
  • Define erythropoiesis and describe erythrocyte production and destruction.
  • Define clotting time, bleeding time, and prothrombin time.
  • Define the antigen-antibody reaction of the Rh blood grouping system.
  • Define erythroblastosis fetalis as a harmful antigen-antibody reaction.
  • Define polycythemia and describe the importance of hematocrit in its diagnosis (ex: blood doping).
  • Discuss the structure of erythrocytes and their function in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  • Discuss the role of leukocytes in phagocytosis and antibody production.
  • Discuss the structure of thrombocytes and explain their role in blood clotting.
  • Explain how the body attempts to prevent blood loss using various factors that promote and inhibit blood clotting.
  • Explain ABO and Rh blood grouping.
  • Compare and contrast the location, composition, and function of interstitial fluid and lymph.
  • Describe some common blood disorders (ex: iron-deficient anemia, pernicious, hemorrhagic, hemolytic, aplastic, and sick cell anemia, etc.).

Demonstrate an understanding of the nervous system structures that control the respiratory cycle.

Objectives:

  • Describe the regions of the medulla and pons that control respirations.
  • Describe the locations of the chemoreceptors that provide sensory information relative to respiratory control.
  • Describe the locations of the stretch receptors that provide information relative to respiratory control.
  • Describe the ANS pathways that connect the sensory data relative to respiratory control to the effector or motor responses on the muscles of respiration.
  • Explain why an individual can suffer major damage to the cerebral cortex and yet still manage to continue living.
  • Explain the Hering-Breuer reflex as it relates to prevention of over-inflation of the lungs.

Describe how blood calcium levels and the skeletal system are intertwined physiologically.

Objectives:

  • Integrate how changes in common environmental variables will affect homeostasis of blood calcium levels.
  • Describe how changes in the hormones used in bone resorption and/or calcification (ex GH, T3 and T4, parahormone, calcitonin, and androgens) can affect the skeletal system

Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the microscopic anatomy and/or physiology of muscle tissues and their functions.

Objectives:

  • List the characteristics and functions of muscle tissue.
  • Compare the location, microscopic appearance, nervous control, and functions of the three kinds of muscle tissue.
  • Define fascia, epimysium, perimysium, endomysium, tendons, and aponeuroses and list their modes of attachment to muscles.
  • Identify the histological characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue.
  • Contrast cardiac muscle tissue with skeletal and smooth muscle tissue.
  • Explain the relationship of blood vessels and nerves to skeletal muscles

Integrate the specific nomenclature of skeletal muscle tissue with its function in normal activities.

Objectives:

  • List the principal molecules associated with the sliding-filament theory.
  • List the principal events associated with the sliding-filament theory.
  • Discuss the physiological importance of the motor unit.
  • Identify the source of energy for muscular contraction.
  • Define the all-or-none principle of muscular contraction.
  • Describe the phases of contraction in a typical myogram of a twitch contraction.
  • Compare and contrast twitch, treppe and tetanic contraction.
  • Compare fast (white) muscle with slow (red) muscle.
  • Compare oxygen debt, fatigue, and heat production as examples of muscle homeostasis.
  • Define some common muscular disorders such as fibrosis, fibrositis, "charley horse", muscular dystrophy, and myasthenia gravis.
  • Identify the various arrangements of muscle and relate the arrangements to the strength of contraction and range of movement.
  • Predict how changes in normal environmental factors would affect the operation of the sliding-filament theory.
  • Predict how myograms of a muscle might appear if known variables are provided (ex: size of muscle, type of muscle, cellular variables, etc.).

Demonstrate an understanding of how neurons process information and communicate with one another and with peripheral effectors.

Objectives:

  • Define the following terms: resting potential, action potential, refractory period, depolarization, repolarization, active transport, threshold level, absolute refractory period, relative refractory period, hyperpolarization, gated channels, chemically gated channels, voltage gated channels, ion channels, neurotransmitter.
  • Identify the major neurotransmitters: Acetylcholine (Ach), norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin.
  • Explain how the resting potential is created and maintained.
  • Describe the events involved in the generation and propagation of an action potential.
  • Explain the all-or-none principle.
  • Discuss the factors that affect the speed with which action potentials are propagated.
  • Describe the structure of a synapse, and explain the mechanism involved in synaptic transmission.
  • Predict the outcome when the following situations are encountered: neurotransmitter receptors are destroyed or blocked; neurotransmitter supplies are exhausted; the damage to voltage-regulated sodium channels from neurotoxins; destruction of AchE; hypocalcemia.