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Human Anatomy

BIO 240

Human Anatomy

BIO 240

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 2 AND WRITING LEVEL 2 AND MATH LEVEL 5; and BIO 171 or permission of instructor.

The anatomy of the human body is presented on an integrated regional basis, supplemented by relevant histological, embryological, and functional considerations. The laboratory emphasizes regional dissections of the cat. Designed to meet the needs of biology majors and pre-professional science curricula, including all transfer health-related fields. (45-45)

Outcomes and Objectives

Develop an understanding of anatomy in the human body.

Objectives:

  • Define anatomy and describe various specialties of each discipline.
  • Name (in order of increasing complexity) the different levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and explain their relationships.
  • List the 11 organ systems of the body and briefly explain the major function(s) of each system.
  • Describe at least two examples in the human body of form following function.

Develop an understanding of the anatomy of the heart

Objectives:

  • Name the major vessels associated with the heart
  • Name the chambers of the heart
  • Name the layers of the heart wall
  • Name the muscle arrangement in the chamber types of the heart
  • Name the valves between the chambers
  • Name the valves at the entry of the artery
  • Describe the role of the major vessels
  • Differentiate between L/R atria
  • Differentiate between L/R ventricles
  • Differentiate between atrioventricular and semilunar valves
  • Define the role of the layers of the heart

Develop a knowledge of male reproductive anatomy

Objectives:

  • List the structures of the male reproductive tract
  • Define the function of the structures of the male tract
  • Describe the route sperm take to reach the outside from the testes
  • Describe the surface features of each area of the male tract
  • Describe the divisions of the male urethra
  • Describe the structure of the male penis
  • Describe the contribution of each of the glands of the mail tract
  • Explain the blood flow to the penis
  • Describe the anatomy of the sperm
  • Predict where sperm will accumulate if the rete testis is cut.
  • Differentiate between secretion of the prostate vs the bulbourethral gland
  • Design an experiment that would show the importance of the epididymis

Develop a knowledge of female reproductive anatomy

Objectives:

  • List the structures of the female reproductive tract
  • Define the function of the structures of the female tract
  • Describe the anatomy of the egg
  • Describe the changes of the ovary
  • Describe the structure of the uterus
  • Describe the female vulva and all of its components
  • Describe the path of the egg from ovary to uterus
  • Describe the surface features of each area of the female tract
  • Compare and contrast the female clitoris to the male penis
  • Design an experiment that would suggest the role of the coats of the egg

Develop an understanding of the major tissue types in the human body.

Objectives:

  • Name, define and describe the four major types of tissue of the body and their roles.

Develop an understanding of the form and function of epithelial tissues.

Objectives:

  • List the major characteristics of epithelial tissue.
  • List the major functions of epithelial tissue.
  • Name and describe the three "layering" arrangements (simple, pseudo stratified, stratified) of epithelial tissue.
  • Name and describe the three "shape" categories (squamous, cuboidal, columnar) of epithelial tissue.
  • Identify from microscopic views the following nine covering-lining epithelial tissues:
  • Characterize by name, location, and function the following nine covering-lining epithelial tissues:
  • Identify the three modifications of columnar cells.
  • Explain the functions of the three modifications of columnar cells.
  • Describe the relationship between form and function for each epithelial type.
  • Distinguish endocrine from exocrine glands regarding structure and function

Develop an understanding of the form and function of connective tissue.

Objectives:

  • List the major characteristics of connective tissue.
  • List the major functions of connective tissue
  • Identify from microscopic views the following connective tissue.
  • List the matrix, function and location of the following connective tissue types:
  • Compare the structures and functions of the different types of connective tissues.

Develop an understanding of the form and function of muscle tissue.

Objectives:

  • List the major characteristics of muscle tissue.
  • List the function of muscle tissue.
  • Identify from microscopic views the following muscle tissues:skeletalsmoothcardiac
  • List the function and location of the following muscle tissue types:skeletalsmoothcardiac
  • Compare and contrast the special structural features of each type of muscle tissue.

Develop an understanding of the form and function of nervous tissue.

Objectives:

  • Describe the characteristics of nervous tissue.
  • Name the two major types of cells found in nervous tissue.
  • Identify neurons from a microscopic view

Explain how epithelial tissue and connective tissues combine to form four different types of membranes and specify their functions.

Objectives:

  • List the four different types of membranes.
  • Identify the location of the four different types of membranes.
  • Compare and contrast the function of each of the four different types of membranes.

Explain the role of the integumentary system as a functioning organ of the human body.

Objectives:

  • Define integumentary system.
  • List the structures that comprise the integumentary system.
  • List and describe the functions of the skin, and specify how these functions are accomplished.

Speak effectively and accurately in the language of anatomy.

Objectives:

  • Describe the anatomical position.
  • Use correct anatomical terminology to describe body planes, body sections, body regions and relative positions.
  • Identify the major body cavities and their subdivisions.
  • Name the specific serous membranes.
  • Name the nine regions or four quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity.
  • Explain the common function of the serous membranes.
  • Locate an organ in the correct abdominopelvic region or quadrant.

Develop an understanding of the structure and function of the epidermis.

Objectives:

  • Identify the tissue type found in the epidermis.
  • List the layers of the epidermis.
  • Explain how the layers of the epidermis change over time.
  • Describe the main structural features of the epidermis, and explain their functional significance.
  • Explain what accounts for individual and racial differences in skin, such as skin color.
  • Discuss the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the skin and the role played by melanocyte.
  • Discuss the importance of Vitamin D production.

Describe the structure and functions of the dermis.

Objectives:

  • Identify the layers of the dermis.
  • List the tissue types found in the dermis.
  • Discuss the significance of cleavage lines.
  • Discuss the advantages provided by each tissue type found in the dermis.

Describe the structure and function of the subcutaneous layer.

Objectives:

  • Identify the tissue types found in the subcutaneous layer.
  • Identify the functions of the tissue types found in the subcutaneous layer.
  • Predict the consequences of an absence of the subcutaneous layer.

Develop an understanding of the development, structure and function of the accessory structures of the Integumentary System.

Objectives:

  • Identify the accessory structures of the Integumentary System.
  • Identify the location of the different types of sudoriferous glands.
  • Describe the anatomical structure of nails and how they are formed.
  • Explain the mechanisms that determine hair color.
  • Explain the growth and replacement of hair.
  • Explain the functions of the glands in the skin.

Develop an understanding of homeostatic imbalances of the skin and the repair mechanism.

Objectives:

  • Describe the sequential process by which the skin repairs itself after injury.
  • Classify the three types of burns and list the systemic effects of each.

Develop an understanding between the components of the skeletal system and their functions.

Objectives:

  • Identify the major components of the skeletal system.
  • List the general features of a flat and a long bone.
  • Define a fracture and list several types of fractures.
  • Discuss the functions provided by components of the skeletal system.
  • Compare and contrast compact and spongy bone tissue.
  • Compare and contrast different types of fractures.

Describe how blood calcium levels and the skeletal system are intertwined physiologically.

Objectives:

  • Differentiate between the functions of osteocytes, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts.
  • Compare and contrast intramembranous and endochondral ossification.
  • Discuss several common forms of skeletal abnormalities (ex. Rickets, osteomalacia, steoporosis, osteomyelitis, etc.).
  • Describe the sequence of events seen in fracture repair and discuss some of the factors involved in length of time for repair.

Describe the general nomenclature associated with the human skeleton and apply that information to skeletal abnormalities.

Objectives:

  • Define the four principal types of bones in the skeleton.
  • Describe the various markings on the surfaces of the bones.
  • List the components of the axial and appendicular skeleton.
  • Identify the bones of the skull and major markings associated with each.
  • Identify the major sutures and fontanels of the skull.
  • Identify the major foramina of the skull along with identification of structures that pass through these openings.
  • Identify the bones of the thorax and their principal markings.
  • Identify the bones of the appendicular skeleton and their major markings.
  • Relate the structure of the markings with their functions.
  • Examine the normal spinal curvatures and relate to spinal abnormalities (ex: lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis).
  • Discuss several of the disorders associated with the vertebral column (ex: spina bifida, kyphosis, lordosis and scoliosis).
  • Compare the principal structural similarities and differences between the male and female human skeletons with particular emphasis on the pelves.

Develop an understanding of the form and function of joints in the human body.

Objectives:

  • Define an articulation and identify the factors that determine the degree of movement at a joint.
  • Classify the major types of joints found in the skeletal system and describe their functions.
  • Compare and contrast the structure, type of movement, and location of fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints.
  • Compare and contrast the types of movement found in various synovial joints.
  • Describe the causes, symptoms, and treatment for some of the common joint disorders, (ex: rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout, bursitis, dislocation and sprain, and tendinitis).

Develop an understanding of the relationship between the microscopic anatomy and/or physiology of muscle tissues and their functions.

Objectives:

  • List the characteristics and functions of muscle tissue.
  • Compare the location, microscopic appearance, nervous control, and functions of the three kinds of muscle tissue.
  • Define fascia, epimysium, perimysium, endomysium, tendons, and aponeuroses and list their modes of attachment to muscles.
  • Identify the histological characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue.
  • Contrast cardiac muscle tissue with skeletal and smooth muscle tissue.
  • Explain the relationship of blood vessels and nerves to skeletal muscles.

Will develop familiarity with the organs of the respiratory system and its functions.

Objectives:

  • Identify the major components of the respiratory system.
  • Identify the tissues that make up the major organs of the respiratory system.
  • Locate the major components of the respiratory system.
  • Identify the muscles involved with quiet respiration.
  • Identify the muscles involved with forced respiration.

Become proficient with specific skeletal muscle names and their relative function.

Objectives:

  • Identify the principal skeletal muscles in different regions of the body by name, origin, insertion, action, and innervation.
  • Define the criteria employed in naming skeletal muscles.
  • Discuss most body movements as activities of groups of muscles by explaining the roles of the prime mover, antagonist, and synergist.
  • Describe the relationship between bones and skeletal muscles in producing body movements.

Develop an understanding of a functional overview of the nervous system.

Objectives:

  • Identify the major anatomical and functional divisions.
  • Identify receptors and effectors in the nervous system.
  • Describe the characteristics of the major anatomical and functional divisions.

Develop an understanding of the structure and function of nervous tissue

Objectives:

  • Sketch and label the structure of a typical neuron.
  • Classify neurons on the basis of their structure and function.
  • Describe the locations and functions of neuroglia in the nervous system.
  • Describe the function of each component of a typical neuron.
  • Predict the outcome when the following situations are encountered; demyelination of a neuron; cellular divisions of abnormal glial cells.
  • Describe the process of nerve regeneration.

Develop an understanding of the gross anatomy and function of the spinal cord and sensory and motor pathways.

Objectives:

  • Label/identify the following gross anatomical features of the spinal cord: conus medullaris, filum terminale, dorsal root ganglia, dorsal roots, ventral roots, spinal nerve, cauda equina.
  • Identify important structures in a cross-section of the spinal cord.
  • Identify the receptors for general senses.
  • Describe the major components of a spinal nerve.
  • Describe the three meningeal layers that surround the central nervous system.
  • Describe the various plexuses of spinal nerves and the areas innervated.
  • Explain the roles of white matter and gray matter in processing and relaying sensory information and motor commands.
  • Describe the process of a neural reflex.
  • Explain how pain is perceived.
  • Distinguish between sensation and perception.

Develop an understanding of the structure and function of the human brain.

Objectives:

  • Name the major regions of the brain and describe their functions.
  • Name the ventricles of the brain, and describe their locations and the connections between them.
  • Identify major regions and landmarks of the brain.
  • Identify the meninges of the brain and describe their functions.
  • Identify the lobes of the cerebrum and describe their functions.
  • List/identify the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and state a function of each.
  • Trace cerebrospinal fluid from its formation in the choroid plexus until reabsorption in the venous sinuses.
  • Explain the function and importance of the blood-brain barrier.

Develop an understanding of the autonomic nervous system.

Objectives:

  • Identify the two classes of sympathetic receptors.
  • Identify the two different types of Ach receptors.
  • Compare the function of the autonomic nervous system with other divisions of the nervous system.
  • Compare and contrast the structures and functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. Include:
  • Discuss the relationship between the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system and the significance of dual innervation.
  • When given a short case history and access to resource materials, determine how the autonomic nervous system function can be modified by drugs.
  • Discuss the relationship between the ANS and the hypothalamus.Explain and diagram in detail one (ascending) somatosensory pathway and one (descending) motor spinal pathway.
  • When given a short case history and access to resource materials, determine which nerve is involved in a clinical application case history.

Develop familiarity with the microscopic anatomy of the respiratory system and the functions.

Objectives:

  • Describe the tissue and cellular structures of the following: the respiratory bronchioles, the alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and the alveoli.
  • Describe the structure of the respiratory membrane.

Become familiar with the gross anatomy of the urinary system.

Objectives:

  • Identify and locate the organs of the urinary system.
  • Describe the tissues and regions of the organs of the urinary system.
  • Relate the function of each of the organs of the urinary system with the gross structure.

Become familiar with the microscopic features of the kidney, the ureter, and the bladder.

Objectives:

  • Identify the cells that comprise the following portions of the major organs or the urinary system: i.e. nephron, collecting tubules, blood vessels, The student will be able to: pelvic region of kidney, smooth muscle of the bladder, mucous membrane of the ureter and bladder etc.
  • Relate microscopic structure with function in the kidney, ureter, and bladder.

Develop an understanding of the anatomy of the lymphatic system.

Objectives:

  • Define and compare lymph and chyle.
  • Define lymph capillaries, vessels, ducts, and nodes.
  • List the regional groupings of lymph nodes.
  • List the three types of tonsils.
  • Describe the anatomical differences of the lymph vessels and circulatory vessels.
  • Describe how the anatomy of the capillaries, vessels, and nodes allow for their functional ability.
  • Explain the function of a lymph node and relate this to its anatomy.
  • Describe the different functional area served by each lymphatic duct.

Develop an understanding of the anatomy of the human digestive system

Objectives:

  • List the layers of the digestive tract.
  • Identify the major structures of the digestive tract and associated accessory organs.
  • Discuss the function of the major structures of the digestive tract and associated accessory organs.

Develop an understanding of cardiac muscle tissue

Objectives:

  • List the three types of muscle
  • Define myogenic
  • Define intercalated discs
  • Compare the three types of muscle tissue