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Integrated General Biology I

BIO 171

Integrated General Biology I

BIO 171

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 2 AND WRITING LEVEL 2 AND MATH LEVEL 5 and CHM 111 with a grade of C or higher, or approval of instructor.

Studies the scientific method, diversity of life with emphasis on biochemistry, cell structure and function, bioenergetics and metabolism, molecular, Mendelian and developmental genetics. (45-45)

Outcomes and Objectives

Participate in the process of science.

Objectives:

  • Make observations.
  • Access information resources.
  • Design experiments.
  • Conduct experiments.
  • Formulate and test hypotheses.
  • Collect data.
  • Analyze data.
  • Draw conclusions.
  • Report results.

Discuss the fundamental laws of thermodynamics and how they relate to cell energetics.

Objectives:

  • Describe how the first law of thermodynamics relates to the changing amount of available energy in the universe.
  • Define entropy and enthalpy in terms of the second law of thermodynamics.
  • Relate the energy requirements of dehydration and hydrolysis to the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
  • Discuss the energetics of coupling reactions.
  • Identify different types of potential energy within a cell.
  • Identify cellular processes that convert one type of stored energy into another type of energy.
  • Compare and contrast catabolic, anabolic, exergonic and endergonic reactions.
  • Describe the interrelatedness of oxidation-reduction reactions and their significance in living systems.
  • Recognize the structure of ATP.

Discuss the structure, function and importance of enzymes.

Objectives:

  • Define activation energy and describe how it is related to reaction rate and how it can be altered.
  • Describe the role of enzymes as chemical catalysts in biological systems.
  • Explain in terms of chemical properties of amino acids how an enzyme is capable of possessing substrate specificity.
  • Identify that pH, temperature, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration and inhibitors can all affect the activity of an enzyme.
  • Explain in chemical terms how pH, temperature, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration and inhibitors can all affect the activity of an enzyme.
  • Explain in terms of the Law of Mass Action the difference between competitive and non-competitive inhibitors.
  • Diagram a generalized biochemical pathway.
  • Explain the role of kinases in the cell.

Describe the structure and function of cells and the organelles of the cell.

Objectives:

  • List three parts of the cell theory and briefly describe its development.
  • Explain why cells are small, and be able to calculate the surface area to volume ratio as it relates to the size of the cell.
  • List five basic differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  • Identify and describe the cell organelles and how they function.
  • Define "specialized cell" and identify some of the functions of these cells in complex organisms.
  • Identify which organelles belong to the endomembrane system.
  • Identify the path of a secreted protein through the cell.
  • Using a microscope, distinguish between cell types characteristic of the five kingdoms.
  • Prepare materials for microscopic observation and demonstrate the correct procedure for using and storing a compound microscope.
  • Describe techniques and tools used to study cells such as microscopy, centrifugation, and radioactive tracers.

Describe cell membrane composition and relate it to function.

Objectives:

  • Understand the biochemistry of phospholipids and how they are organized into membranes.
  • Compare and contrast the terms diffusion, facilitated diffusion and osmosis.
  • Discuss the signal hypothesis.
  • Predict the behavior of a cell in an isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic environment.
  • Define active transport.
  • Discuss the membrane models involved in diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport.
  • Differentiate between endocytosis and exocytosis.
  • Describe the operation of sodium-potassium pumps and the proton pumps.
  • Indicate the functions of cell surface receptors and cell surface markers.

Discuss the process and significance of cellular respiration and fermentation.

Objectives:

  • Describe glycolysis in general terms, including initial reactants, products, as well as net vs. total ATP production.
  • Explain the chemical consequences of the early phosphorylation events of glycolysis.
  • Describe the role of the citric acid cycle, the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration.
  • Compare the overall energy efficiency of the complete aerobic degradation of one molecule of glucose with the efficiency of glycolysis alone.
  • Explain the role of NADH and FADH in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle as electron carriers.
  • Explain the relative ATP yields or NADH and FADH in terms of oxidative potential and the electron transport chain.
  • Distinguish between substrate and oxidative phosphorylation.
  • Explain the significance of oxygen and hydrogen in biological redox reactions.
  • Briefly describe the role of the citric acid cycle in intermediary metabolism touching on deamination and ?-oxidation.
  • Describe alcoholic fermentation in terms of needing to recycle electron acceptors, its energy output and its end products.
  • Describe three ways in which living organisms generate ATP and indicate which is more efficient.
  • Describe the process of anaerobic respiration as it occurs in human muscle.
  • Identify the stage of glycolysis, respiration and/or fermentation in which these intermediates are produced or involved: glucose, pyruvate, acetyl, acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, citrate, oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, hydrogen ions.
  • Identify the cellular location of the different stages of glycolysis, citric acid cycle, and fermentation.

Discuss the process and significance of photosynthesis.

Objectives:

  • Describe the properties of light in terms of energy content and photons.
  • Name the stages of eukaryotic photosynthesis and indicate which processes require light and why.
  • State the overall equation for photosynthesis and explain why water is included on both sides of the equation.
  • Explain how photosynthesis I and II produce ATP and NADH.
  • Compare and contrast non-cyclic and cyclic electron flow.
  • Describe how RUDP, glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate and PGAL fit into the Calvin Cycle.
  • Define photorespiration and its potential hazard to plants.
  • Discuss how CAM and C4 plants combat excessive photorespiration.
  • Identify the location of the light and dark reactions inside the chloroplast.
  • Discuss the complementary nature of photosynthesis and aerobic respiration.

Discuss the stages, events and significance of somatic cell division.

Objectives:

  • Describe and identify the major events of each stage of mitosis and interphase.
  • Discuss cancer at the cellular level in terms of:

Discuss the stages, events and significance of reproductive cell division.

Objectives:

  • Describe and identify the major events in each stage of meiosis.
  • Differentiate between the products of mitosis and meiosis in number and genetic composition.
  • Understand the genetic consequences of crossing over and independent assortment.
  • Indicate the evolutionary advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction and describe the most current explanation for its initial development.
  • Define aneuploidy and polyploidy and discuss three human conditions resulting from abnormal chromosome number.
  • Identify the stage of meiosis where the following events can occur:

Use the principles of genetics to make predictions.

Objectives:

  • Interpret human karyotype and pedigree.
  • Define and properly use the terms: dominance, recessive, hybrid, monohybrid, dihybrid, genotype, allele, locus, sex-influenced, sex-limited, mutation, linkage group, crossing over, and non-disjunction.
  • Utilize the principles of probability in predicting outcomes of genetic crosses involving: monohybrid, dihybrid, sex-linked, incomplete dominance, and multiple alleles.
  • Apply the product rule to calculate the probability of independent event occurring together in a genetic cross involving more than one gene pair.
  • Describe modifications of Mendel's principles based on the acquisition of new data: i.e. polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles, sex-linked traits, epistasis, incomplete dominance penetrance.
  • Describe the role of the genetic counselor and explain the importance of diagnostic testing and family history in the counseling process.
  • Discuss current potentials and problems associated with recent advances in the field of genetics.
  • Explain and state the evidence for the chromosome theory of heredity.
  • Explain how the recombination of linked genes can be used to map chromosomes.
  • Discuss three different chromosomal sex determination systems.
  • Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic chromosomes.
  • Relate the concept of dosage compensation and the observation of Barr Bodies with the Lyon Hypothesis.

Discuss the structure and significance of nucleic acids.

Objectives:

  • Recognize and properly label the chemical components of a DNA molecule.
  • Identify the contributions of: Griffiths, Avery et al., Hershey and Chase, Chargaff, Wilkins and Franklin, Watson and Crick to the discovery of DNA as the information molecule.
  • Explain what is meant by semi-conservative replication.
  • Explain the experiments which lead to understanding that DNA is replicated semi-conservatively.
  • Discuss the role of the following in DNA replication: origin of replication, strand separation, priming, polymerase, Okazaki fragments, ligase, proofreading and DNA repair.
  • List five differences between DNA and RNA.
  • Describe diagrammatically the processes of DNA replication, RNA
  • transcription, and translation. (The central dogma.)
  • Given a DNA coding strand and a table of codons/amino acids, determine the complimentary mRNA strand, tRNA anticodons, and the amino acid sequence that would be translated.

Demonstrate the competent use of common instruments and technology used in scientific investigation.

Objectives:

  • Use a microscope to view small objects.
  • Use computers to help manage and analyze data.
  • Correctly use various kinds of scientific equipment and metering devices for quantitative analysis.
  • Use chemical tests and indicators to determine the presence of specific substances and the occurrence of chemical reactions for qualitative analysis.

Define a gene and explain the sequence of events involved in gene expression.

Objectives:

  • Discuss the contributions of Garrod, Beadle and Tatum to our current understanding of the gene.
  • Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes and genomes.
  • Discuss signal sequences, RNA splicing and processing, splicesomes and ribozymes.
  • Describe the five regions of the lac operon and how they work together to regulate lactose metabolism.
  • Identify the stages in the central dogma at which regulation of gene expression can occur.
  • Describe generally the source of antibody diversity.
  • Describe the effects of chemical modification of nucleic acids on gene expression.
  • Compare and contrast oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
  • Describe three different levels associated with the control of gene expression.
  • Discuss the features specific to eukaryotic genes which allow them to evolve more quickly than prokaryotic genes.
  • Discuss development at the organismal level. Include the following in your discussion: totipotent, differentiation, and homeotic genes.

Identify general characteristics of different sources of extra-genomic DNA.

Objectives:

  • Identify viral structures and replication, distinguish between DNA viruses, RNA viruses and retroviruses.
  • Discuss the lytic and lysogenic cycles of bacteriophage
  • Discuss the bacterial genome, plasmids, transformation, transduction, and conjugation.
  • Define a transposon and name several organisms in which transposons have been identified.

Define and explain the implications of genetic mutations.

Objectives:

  • Identify factors in the environment which can act as mutagens and/or carcinogens.
  • Differentiate between deletion, insertion, frameshift, and point mutation.
  • Predict the impact of various types of mutation on protein sequence.

Discuss several fundamental techniques used in DNA technology or biotechnology.

Objectives:

  • Distinguish between applied and basic research using examples from recombinant DNA technology.
  • Understand how plasmids and lambda viruses are used as vectors to introduce DNA to a cell.
  • Know the natural function of restriction endonucelases and how a normal bacterial cell protects its DNA from their activity.
  • Explain the basic steps of gene cloning.
  • Explain selection of transformed colonies.
  • Explain Southern blot hybridization.
  • Explain the theory of genetic diagnosis based on RFLPs.
  • Explain the theory of PCR.
  • Identify the role of HUGO in molecular genetics today.
  • Discuss the implication of gene therapy in society from both practical and ethical views.

Competently communicate in the language of the discipline.

Objectives:

  • Read critically.
  • Write effectively.
  • Listen actively.
  • Speak effectively.
  • Develop and interpret graphs and flow charts.

Demonstrate the ability to think critically.

Objectives:

  • Integrate concepts.
  • Solve problems.
  • Draw logical conclusions.
  • Make predictions based on evidence.
  • Identify trends and patterns.
  • Distinguish between simple correlation and cause-and-effect.

Associate and cooperate with peers to learn.

Objectives:

  • Work in small groups.
  • Exchange data and ideas.
  • Accept responsibility for his/her share of the work.
  • Meet deadlines determined by the group.

Become aware of the availability of the various information resources for current and continued learning purposes.

Objectives:

  • Use the library to access information using a variety of computer data bases and/or indexes.
  • Distinguish between the scientific literature and general information sources.
  • Recognize the differences between various types of journals which contain scientific information.
  • Use computers for access to the Internet and to self-directed tutorials and simulations.
  • Use reference manuals specific to the discipline.
  • Use instructional videos and films.
  • Use other individuals such as students, instructors and professionals as a source of information.

Describe the basic principles and characteristics of the scientific method.

Objectives:

  • List in order the steps of the scientific method.
  • Explain the role of observation, hypothesis formation, and experimental design in the scientific method.
  • Identify that science is a self-correcting process which is based on inquiry and observation.
  • Differentiate between applied and basic science.

Recognize the broad unifying themes in the study of living things.

Objectives:

  • List the characteristics of life which are common to all organisms/cells.
  • Identify that adaptability, and a cell/carbon basis are the unifying characteristics of the diversity of life around us.
  • List the seven different levels of taxa in the five kingdom classification scheme from most inclusive to least inclusive.
  • List the characteristics associated with organisms found in each of the five kingdoms.
  • Discuss the various ways that organisms/cells interact with their environment.
  • Provide several examples of the correlation of structure and function at the organismal, cellular and sub-cellular level.
  • Explain the common aspects of the inheritance of biological information as based in nucleic acids and base pairing.
  • Discuss evolution as a core theme of biology noting that its effects can be seen at the molecular, subcellular, and organismal levels.

Explain basic concepts of inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry and biochemistry.

Objectives:

  • Identify the location and characteristics of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom.
  • Compare and contrast ions and isotopes and give examples of their biological significance.
  • Differentiate among elements, atoms, molecules and compounds.
  • Predict the combinations of atoms which will form molecules.
  • Describe the features and be able to give examples of covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonds as types of chemical bonds.
  • Discuss the biological importance of pH.
  • Convert a pH reading to the appropriate molar concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions.
  • Convert a molar concentration to a count of molecules per volume of solution.
  • Identify the biologically important functional groups and their chemical properties.
  • Identify and describe the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins as classes of macromolecules.
  • Discuss how carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins relate to the following cellular processes: long term energy storage, short term energy storage, cell shape, information storage, catalysis of chemical reactions, energy coupling, and buffering ability.
  • Describe the various chemical reactions involved in forming complex chains of macromolecules.
  • Describe the consequences of dehydration and hydrolysis reactions and how they are dependent upon water.
  • Describe the four levels of protein structure and the forces that help maintain the integrity of each.
  • Explain why water is the essence of life as we know it.