Advanced Water Treatment TechnologiesWET 212
Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 2 and WRITING LEVEL 2 and MATH LEVEL 6, and WET 110, or permission of instructor.
Considers drinking water treatment technologies beyond conventional processes. Includes softening, ion exchange, activated carbon absorption, aeration, air stripping, and membrane processes. Includes participation in field tours and discussions on safety and health, sampling procedures, record keeping, data preparation, report writing and the analytical procedures used to determine and measure drinking water quality. (45-0)
Outcomes and Objectives
The student can describe the process "softening" typical source waters
- Describe the effects of hard and soft water and the types of water hardness.
- Describe drinking water softening processes.
- Describe conventional softening equipment found in water treatment facilities.
- Explain the impacts softening may have on other treatment processes.
- Perform softening dosage and chemical solids production calculations.
The student can describe corrosion and scaling in drinking water systems.
- Explain the purpose of corrosion and scaling control.
- Describe the chemical reactions that occur during the corrosion of metals.
- Describe the factors affecting corrosion including: dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, pH, temperature, flow velocity, types of metal, electrical current, and bacteria.
- Explain the chemistry of scale formation including calcium carbonate precipitate.
- Explain the use of corrosion inhibitors and sequestering agents.
- Discuss federal SDWA regulations including the Lead & Copper Rule.
The student can discuss impacts of ion exchange on drinking waters and on industrial users.
- Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of operating ion exchange processes.
- Describe health concerns that may be associated with the ion exchange process.
- Describe the ion exchange softening process basic components.
- Define cycles of the ion exchange process: softening, backwash, regeneration, and rinse.
- Perform ion exchange calculations including: removal capacities and run times.
The student understands the impacts of organic compounds in raw water supplies and can explain various techniques of the absorption process used to remove such contaminants.
- Distinguish Synthetic (SOCs) and Volatile Organic Chemicals (VOCs) found in water.
- Define various forms of disinfection by-products including THMs and HAAs.
- Differentiate between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances.
- Describe the steps in Gas Chromatography.
- Describe the details of adsorption.
- Explain the applications of powdered and granular activated carbon.
- Illustrate a typical breakthrough pattern for a granular activated carbon bed.
- Discuss the factors influencing adsorption.
- Perform adsorption calculations using the Langmuir and Fruendlich Isotherms.
- Describe National Primary Drinking Water Regulations regarding treatment chemicals.
- Describe typical carbon adsorption feeding equipment used in a water treatment plant.
- Describe the properties of activated carbon.
- Discuss the analytical process of mass spectroscopy.
The student can describe aeration and air stripping processes that can remove dissolved gasses, introduce oxygen to oxidize dissolved materials and release volatile chemicals.
- Summarize the constituents affected by aeration including: carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, methane, VOCs, radon, iron and manganese, and taste and odors.
- Define the types of aerators including: water-into-air types, air-into-water types and combination types.
- Describe the advantages and disadvantages of fine-bubble and course bubble diffused aeration.
- Describe how iron is removed via aeration by illustrating iron oxidation reaction.
- Calculate various air stripper design parameters including: Henry's constant, Gas Transfer Coefficient, and air-to-water ratio.
- Describe the impact of solubility, surface area, and relative volatility to the aeration/air stripping processes.
- age 3 WET 212 - O & O
The student can describe various membrane filtration processes
- Describe the forces used in membrane processes including pressure and electrical energy.
- Describe membrane processes: micro, ultra, & nano-filtration, and reverse osmosis.
- Discuss the removal efficiency of various membrane processes.
- Discuss the differences between the most common membrane materials.
- Describe the four (4) membrane configurations currently available including: spiral wound, hollow fiber, tubular, and plate and frame.
- Discuss various reverse osmosis conditions: salt rejection, salt passage, and recovery rate.
The student can discuss standard process monitoring and water quality compliance reporting tests and the methods and procedures used during the daily operation of water treatment plants.
- Explain standard water treatment analytical procedures, including but not limited to alkalinity, hardness, chloride, fluoride, turbidity, conductivity and residual chlorine.
The student can describe and differentiate between the various job descriptions found in a typical drinking water plant and the role that each of those jobs plays in the successful operation of the distribution systems and treatment facility.
- Study job descriptions and talk with working professionals concerning the education,skills, experience and personal traits earned and exhibited by drinking water plant staff.