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Pharmacology in the Operating Room

ST 207

Pharmacology in the Operating Room

ST 207

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: Admission to the Surgical Technology program and concurrent enrollment in ST 210, ST 220, ST 230, and ST 240.

Introduces anesthetic agents and other drugs commonly used in the perioperative setting: their uses, methods of administration, physiologic effects, and hazards or untoward effects. Credit may be used in ST 107 or ST 207 but not in both. (30-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

Demonstrate progress in communication and language skills, critical thinking, interpersonal/collaborative skills, and information literacy.

Objectives:

  • Communicate in acceptable English and use medical terminology accurately and appropriately.
  • Analyze data and discipline-based knowledge to formulate logical conclusions.
  • Demonstrate the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations.
  • Work constructively within a group, demonstrating respect and consideration for others.
  • Demonstrate the ability to access, analyze, and use information appropriate to the discipline.

Demonstrate knowledge of general concepts of medication administration.

Objectives:

  • Define the three names of any drug and discuss how each is used.
  • Compare and contrast the various routes of drug administration.
  • Define specific terminology used in the study of pharmacology.

Demonstrate an understanding of the methods and agents used to achieve surgical anesthesia.

Objectives:

  • Define the ASA system of patient classification regarding anesthesia risk and give examples of each level of classification.
  • Describe the pain pathways from peripheral receptors to interpretive cortex and where those may be interrupted to achieve "anesthesia".
  • List the basic methods of providing surgical anesthesia, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each.
  • Describe the methods of induction of general anesthesia and of endotracheal intubation.
  • Identify indications for emergency induction procedures.
  • List the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic agents and describe their effects on various physiologic systems.
  • Compare the categories, agents and uses of neuromuscular blocking agents.
  • Discuss the purposes and agents used for neuroleptic analgesia and anesthesia.
  • Discuss the major hazards and complications attendant with general anesthesia.
  • Compare the methods, agents and usage of spinal and epidural anesthesia.
  • Describe alternative methods used to provide regional anesthesia.
  • List the agents used for local infiltration and topical anesthesia, their uses and potential adverse reactions.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of how to observe for untoward reactions.

Demonstrate knowledge of other pharmacologic agents that are commonly used in the operating room or that are specifically related to perioperative care.

Objectives:

  • Classify and discuss the various types of analgesic and antipyretic agents, including their mechanisms of action, uses and adverse effects.
  • Identify and discuss sedative-hypnotic agents and tranquilizers, including their mechanisms of action, uses and adverse effects.
  • Classify and discuss the uses of other drugs acting on the Central Nervous System, including anticonvulsants, anti-Parkinsonism drugs, CNS stimulants, antiemetics, antihistamines, and centrally-acting skeletal muscle relaxants.
  • Classify and discuss Autonomic Nervous System drugs, including their actions and uses during surgery.
  • Classify and discuss antihypertensive agents and miscellaneous vascular drugs.
  • Classify and discuss cardiac inotropic agents, anti-arrhythmic drugs and coronary dilators, including their mechanisms of action.
  • Discuss drugs used to lower serum cholesterol levels.
  • Classify and discuss drugs affecting the gastrointestinal tract and biliary system.
  • Discuss the effects and uses of different types of insulin and insulin antagonists.
  • Classify and discuss coagulants, local hemostatic agents, anticoagulants, and thrombolytic agents, including their mechanisms of action.
  • Differentiate the perioperative uses of intravenous fluids (both crystalloid and colloid), hyperalimentation fluids, blood transfusion and blood component therapy.
  • Discuss the potential adverse effects associated with blood transfusion and how they can be recognized, and compare those risks with the use of autologous blood.
  • Classify and discuss diuretics, including their uses and potential adverse effects.
  • Classify and discuss the uses and effects of obstetrical agents.
  • Classify and discuss the uses and effects of hormones associated with the reproductive systems.
  • Discuss the uses, actions and side effects of adrenocorticosteroids.
  • Discuss the uses of other hormones.
  • Discuss methods and agents of antineoplastic chemotherapy.
  • Discuss the current status of other types of antineoplastic therapy.
  • Classify and discuss agents used for antimicrobial therapy.

Demonstrate the ability to accurately perform mathematical calculations regarding dosages for back-table medications or solutions.

Objectives:

  • Given a medication strength, calculate the dilution necessary to achieve a different concentration.
  • Given a medication, calculate a requested irrigation solution.