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Introduction to Health Care Service

ST 100

Introduction to Health Care Service

ST 100

Course Description

Prerequisite: BIO 152 with a grade of "C" or better. Presents the history of medicine, epidemiological methods, and current problems and trends in the health care system. Discusses selected global health care issues. Includes professional, legal, and ethical aspects of a multidisciplinary care system. (45-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

Demonstrate improvement in communication, computation, critical thinking and group interactive skills.

Objectives:

  • Paraphrase and synthesize selected readings.
  • Evaluate critically what is read.
  • Write in a clear, organized, succinct and effective manner.
  • Utilize proper spelling, grammar and sentence structure in writing.
  • Speak effectively in expressing a reasoned point of view.
  • Listen to, respect and critically evaluate the ideas and opinions of others.
  • Exhibit development of both inductive and deductive reasoning skills.
  • Take a position on an issue and provide evidence/rationale to support that position.
  • Given a controversial issue, articulate at least two perspectives (or "sides of the argument").
  • Interpret data presented in the form of tables, graphs and charts.
  • Perform accurate computations on data.
  • Recognize patterns and trends in data and justify those conclusions.
  • Analyze errors in logic in examples of inferences drawn from data.
  • Work constructively in a group, contributing to the product(s) of the group and accepting responsibility for one's own level of work.
  • Identify and analyze one's own values, especially regarding health and health care.
  • Respect the perspectives, values and choices of others.

Summarize the history and evolution of Western medicine and the health care system, with particular emphasis on surgical practice.

Objectives:

  • Trace Man's concept of disease from its beginning until the present day.
  • List practices or elements of modern medicine that can be traced back to ancient cultures (Egyptian, Babylonian or Greek).
  • Describe what happened to the development of European medicine between the time of the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance.
  • Discuss the advances made in medical knowledge during the 16th through 19th centuries.
  • Identify three "problems" that had to be resolved before the modern era of safe invasive surgery could begin and give the approximate dates of those solutions.
  • List at least six developments during the last approximately 150 years that are now considered "essential" parts of modern medical practice.
  • Identify current trends in the practice of surgery.
  • Identify trends or themes that recur throughout the history of Western medicine.
  • Compare the education and preparation of doctors today with those of approximately 150 years ago.
  • Describe the history of Operating Room staffing and the profession of Surgical Technology.

Discuss the numerous interacting factors that influence health worldwide and the changing patterns of disease in this country.

Objectives:

  • Define "health" and "disease".
  • Compare the leading causes of death with the major chronic health problems in this country.
  • Explain what is meant by the "multifactorial nature" of disease etiology.
  • Discuss the impact that the aging of the American population will have on the health care system.
  • Discuss the importance of infectious agents throughout history and the impact these still have on non-Western societies.
  • Identify other current demographic trends in the U.S. and explain the effects these are expected to have on the health care system.
  • Discuss the negative consequences of the overuse of antibiotics.
  • Define and give examples of the six levels of health care.
  • Discuss current trends in sexually transmitted diseases, including contributing factors and consequences.
  • Explain the recent emergence of previously-unknown human pathogens.
  • Define genetically-adaptive traits and explain how they may be advantageous or deleterious as the physical or social environment changes.
  • Discuss the causes of the increase in genetic disorders in this country and the possible consequences of medical intervention as well as non-intervention.
  • Discuss the ethical issues associated with "treating" genetic predisposition toward various diseases.
  • Define terminology related to under- or over-activity of the immune system.
  • Explain the "hygiene hypothesis" as an explanation for the increasing prevalence of allergies and asthma in the U.S.
  • List the most prevalent nutritional disorders in the U.S. and in the world today.
  • Discuss the consequences of improved general nutrition in this country.
  • Discuss the health problems and health care costs associated with obesity.
  • List influences on health that arise from the physical environment.
  • Discuss the impact of work-related disease and injury, including those associated with the Operating Room.
  • Explain how personality traits can be related to susceptibility to physical diseases.
  • List economic and political factors that can influence the availability of health care services to individuals or communities.
  • List influences on health that arise from the social environment, including unemployment and socio-economic-educational conditions.
  • Discuss the consequences of social stress in terms of violence, suicide, and substance abuse.
  • Discuss the impact of trauma on the American health care system.
  • Discuss the interactions of biological factors, environmental factors, and social factors in the determination of health and disease.
  • State the impact of the health care industry on American business and economics.
  • Trace historical changes in the patterns of disease in the U.S.
  • Discuss how the health status of a population usually is measured and how the U.S. compares with other countries.
  • List the three leading causes of death in the U.S. today.

Demonstrate an introductory level of knowledge of epidemiology, including interpretation of various types of presentation of data, analysis of conclusions and awareness of the methods of conduct of interventional studies.

Objectives:

  • Define "public health" and differentiate its characteristics from those of medical care.
  • Analyze the validity of conclusions drawn from situational examples.
  • Define "epidemiology."
  • Define Population Attributable Risk (PAR) and identify the major uses of such studies.
  • Define "incidence", "prevalence", "morbidity" and "mortality."
  • State the purpose of screening surviellance.
  • Identify the sources of public health data and discuss the dependability of that data.
  • Contrast sensitivity and specificity in assessing screening tests.
  • Define population dynamics, including the terminology associated with mortality, natality, rate of natural change and migration.
  • Describe the ways that a clinical/therapeutic trial can be conducted.
  • Calculate standard epidemiologic rates from tables of data.
  • Define the various stages ("phases") of clinical/therapeutic trials.
  • Describe the purposes of "adjusting" rates when comparing data from diverse populations.
  • Define a "randomized controlled trial (RCT)" and a "triple blind" study.
  • Define "infant mortality", "maternal mortality", and "life expectancy"; discuss factors that can affect each of them, and explain why these are the most commonly used parameters to compare the general health of different populations.
  • Discuss the "placebo effect."
  • Explain the "J-shaped curve" depicting death rates related to age.
  • Discuss factors affecting natality.
  • Define Completed/Total fertility rate (CFR/TFR).
  • Differentiate "replacement fertility" from "zero population growth."
  • Define and discuss the "Neolithic Revolution."
  • Define and discuss "Demographic Transition."
  • Discuss the differences in health-related demographics (including major causes of death) between pre-Transition vs. post-Transition societies.
  • Inperpret depictions of age disbribution in a population and compare population pyramids of "Western" vs. "Third World" countries.
  • Describe trends in population growth and age distribution in the U.S. and in the world and discuss the possible consequences of these trends.
  • List and explain the elements of descriptive epidemiology.
  • Explain how the leading causes of death and disease can vary among sub-populations.
  • Define analytic epidemiology.
  • Explain hwo epidemiologic studies identify risk factors.
  • Construct and interpret a 2 x 2 table and calculate rates and risk factors from it.
  • Compare and contrast prospective/cohort studies, petrospective/case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies, including the appropriate type of risk estimate obtained from each.
  • List the criteria for the epidemiologic determination of causality.
  • Explain what is meant by saying that risk factors generally are "neither necessary nor sufficient" for the incidence of a disease.
  • Discuss the interpretation of data and identify examples of random error, confounding, and various types of bias.

Explain the concept of the continuum between health behaviors and illness behaviors.

Objectives:

  • Define "health behaviors" and give examples.
  • Provide examples of circumstances that can influence a person's motivation to engage in health behaviors.
  • Differentiate "disease" from "illness."
  • Explain the differences in society's expectations of a person when s/he is sick (referred to as "the sick role").
  • Describe typical patient reactions to sickness.
  • List the stages of grief.
  • Give examples of patient expressions of egocentricity and dependency.
  • Discuss how a health care worker can respond to illness behavior.
  • Interpret the balance between "professional closeness" and "professional distance."
  • List and explain the elements of The Patient's Bill of Rights.

In the process of theorizing the individualizing of patient care, exhibit sensitivity to patients as unique persons.

Objectives:

  • Relate perceptions and anxieties about sickness and health care to different developmental stages in children and teenagers.
  • Discuss the general physiologic changes of aging and the social concerns of elderly patients, and explain how these may affect the care needed.
  • Discuss the influence of family or social unit on a patient's health care experiences and recuperation.
  • Explain how factors of race and ethnicity affect the predisposition to disease.
  • Exhibit sensitivity to cultural differences in a patient's perceptions of health and his/her receptivity to health care.
  • Discuss how religious beliefs can affect a patient's perceptions of disease and responses to it.
  • Demonstrate awareness of how language and dialect differences can affect a patient's care.
  • Relate health care system "traditions" to other aspects (e.g. dietary customs) of a culturally diverse society.
  • Relate socio-economic-educational factors to differences in patients' perceptions, expectations and acceptance of the health care system.
  • Identify any gender differences in the factors mentioned above.
  • Given a patient description, identify relevant factors in terms of individualizing patient care.

Demonstrate familiarity with the organization of the U.S. health care system, including its goals, regulatory agencies, facilities, financing, current issues and trends toward the future.

Objectives:

  • Identify and trace the historic evolution of the four current goals of the health care system.
  • Discuss whether the U.S. has a "sickness care system" or a "health care system."
  • Compare and contrast the roles and influences of the various types of health care regulatory agencies.
  • Discuss the historical development of hospitals.
  • Explain how hospitals can be classified and give examples for each.
  • Define the process of hospital accreditation and discuss its importance.
  • Describe the typical administrative structure of a hospital and how the various elements interact.
  • Identify other types of health care facilities.
  • Analyze historical changes in the financing of health care.
  • Define Medicare and Medicaid.
  • Analyze trends in economic aspects within the health care system.
  • Debate the idea of health care as a "right" or a "privilege."
  • Identify and discuss the major problems facing the health care delivery system.
  • List factors contributing to the increasingly high cost of health care.
  • Discuss the effects that the prospective payment system has had and is expected to have on health care facilities and practitioners.
  • Identify current attempts to address the problems in the health care delivery system.
  • Describe current changes/trends in medical practice.
  • Define "managed care" and "capitation" and explain their intended purposes.
  • Discuss elements of the debate concerning HMO's.
  • List advantages and disadvantages of the current trend toward Managed Care.
  • Discuss the evolutionary changes that are occurring within hospitals and with other types of health care facilities.

As a future practitioner, demonstrate understanding of the elements of professional health care service.

Objectives:

  • Differentiate a profession from an occupation.
  • Discuss generally-held public expectations of a professional.
  • Identify aspects of quality control on a profession.
  • Define the process of accreditation of an educational program.
  • Differentiate licensure, certification, and registry; and list advantages and disadvantages of each.
  • Explain the "implicit contract" between a patient and a health care professional.
  • Identify various disciplinary measures used in quality control of practitioners.
  • Describe the job function and working conditions of a Surgical Technologist.
  • Discuss the credentialing mechanism and continuing education requirements for a Surgical Technologist.

Discuss the evolution, roles and interrelationships of members of the health care team.

Objectives:

  • Relate various health care team members to the six levels of health care and the goals of the health care system.
  • Identify the three "clients" of a health care professional.
  • Discuss role ambiguities and "turf battles" among members of the team.
  • List the elements that promote positive team interaction
  • Give examples of negative stereotypes that interfere with team functioning.