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Maternal and Neonatal Respiratory Care

RT 231

Maternal and Neonatal Respiratory Care

RT 231

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: RT 150.

Concurrent enrollment in RT 207, RT 212, RT 214, RT 216, RT 226, RT 229. Presents the theory and application of maternal and neonatal respiratory care. Emphasizes fetal development, the birth process, cardiopulmonary changes following birth, and neonatal cardiopulmonary pathophysiology. (27-6)

Outcomes and Objectives

Demonstrate, through successful completion of written examination and/or return demonstration, the ability to:

Objectives:

  • Describe the different methods of monitoring the neonate.
  • Describe and explain the function of the TcO2 and TcCO2 electrodes.
  • Explain how TcO2 measurements are interpreted.
  • Explain how the function of the TcO2 electrode is related to perfusion at the monitoring site.
  • Explain how the perfusion is monitored.
  • Explain the use of heat at the monitoring site.
  • Describe how the TcO2 and TcCO2 monitors are calibrated.
  • Explain where and how the electrodes are applied.
  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of TcO2 monitoring.
  • Explain the function and use of oximetry.
  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of oximetry.
  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of invasive blood gas sampling techniques.
  • Explain the complications of invasive blood gas sampling techniques.

Demonstrate, through successful completion of written examination and/or return demonstration, the ability to:

Objectives:

  • Define:
  • For each of the above, describe the:

Demonstrate, through successful completion of written examination and/or return demonstration, the ability to:

Objectives:

  • Define:
  • For each of the above, describe the:

Demonstrate, through successful completion of written examination and/or return demonstration, the ability to:

Objectives:

  • Define:
  • For each of the above, describe the:

Demonstrate, through successful completion of written examination and/or return demonstration, the ability to:

Objectives:

  • Describe the major indication for oxygen therapy.
  • Explain the different types of hypoxia.
  • Explain the clinical signs of hypoxia.
  • Explain the significance of cyanosis as a sign of hypoxia.
  • Give an appropriate rationale for maintaining an infant's PaO2 within the "acceptable" range.
  • Explain the use of oxygen as a diagnostic tool.
  • Describe the different methods of oxygen administration.
  • Explain the advantages and dis-advantages of the various methods of oxygen administration.
  • Explain the hazards of oxygen therapy.
  • Describe methods to prevent RLF and BPD.
  • Explain the use of vitamin E therapy in the prevention of RLF and BPD.

Demonstrate, through successful completion of written examination and/or return demonstration, the ability to:

Objectives:

  • Identify and explain factors that would indicate a "high-risk" birth.
  • Describe the basic equipment needed for a newborn resuscitation.
  • Describe the evaluation of the newborn in distress.
  • Describe the management of the newborn in distress.

Demonstrate, through successful completion of written examination and/or return demonstration, the ability to:

Objectives:

  • Describe the complications of suctioning the infant and methods to avoid these complications.
  • List the pressure ranges used when suctioning the infant.
  • Describe the procedure for pharyngeal and nasopharyngeal suctioning of the infant.
  • Explain the risks of nasotracheal and orotracheal suctioning of the infant.
  • Describe the method for selecting an appropriate size suction catheter for endotracheal suctioning.
  • Describe the procedure for endo-tracheal suctioning.

Demonstrate, through successful completion of written examination and/or return demonstration, the ability to:

Objectives:

  • Describe the goals of CPAP therapy.
  • Explain the pulmonary effects of CPAP.
  • Explain the cardiovascular effects of CPAP.
  • Describe the ideal CPAP system.
  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of various types of CPAP systems.
  • List the indications of CPAP.
  • Describe how CPAP is applied.
  • Explain how CPAP systems are monitored.
  • Describe how infants are weaned from CPAP.
  • Explain the goals of mechanical ventilation.
  • List the indications for mechanical ventilation of the neonate.
  • Describe the "special problems" associated with mechanical ventilation of the neonate.
  • Explain the use of PEEP in treating the neonate.
  • Describe how infants are weaned from mechanical ventilation.

Demonstrate, through successful completion of written examination and/or return demonstration, the ability to:

Objectives:

  • Describe the "ideal" transport incubator.
  • State the percentage of all births requiring transport.
  • Explain the importance of early transport.
  • State factors, which influence the decision to transport an infant.
  • Explain how the request for transport is handled.
  • Describe the stabilization of the neonate before and after the transport team arrives.
  • Describe the care of the "second patient" involved.
  • Describe problems encountered from nursery incubator to transport incubator and methods to deal with these problems.
  • Describe problems encountered from nursery to ambulance and methods to deal with these problems.
  • Describe problems encountered in the ambulance in transit and methods to deal with these problems.

Demonstrate, through successful completion of written examination and/or return demonstration, the ability to:

Objectives:

  • Define:
  • Explain the early stages of development of the fetus from stage 1 to the neurulation stage.
  • List the organs that develop from the:
  • Describe the development of the upper respiratory tract.
  • Describe the development of the lower respiratory tract, including the:
  • Characterize the three general phases of lung development.
  • Explain the significance of the L/S ratio.
  • Explain the storage and use of glycogen in the fetal lung.

Demonstrate, through successful completion of written examination and/or return demonstration, the ability to:

Objectives:

  • Describe the development of the placenta.
  • Identify and explain the function of the
  • Explain the main functions of the placenta.
  • Explain the function of the:
  • Describe the flow of blood through the fetal circulation.
  • State the relative O2 saturations through the fetal circulation.

Demonstrate, through successful completion of written examination and/or return demonstration, the ability to:

Objectives:

  • Describe the factors that stimulate the infant to initiate breathing.
  • Describe the events that assist with the transition from fluid filled to air filled lungs.
  • Describe the factors that oppose this transition.
  • Explain changes, following birth, in:
  • Define and explain the treatment of:
  • Describe the events that cause the transition from fetal to neonatal circulation.
  • Explain the role of bradykinin in this transition.
  • Explain the factors that affect the infant's ability to bind and release oxygen.