Radiographic Procedures 4RAD 235
Prerequisites: Prerequisites: RAD 110, RAD 120W, RAD 122, RAD 150, RAD 205W, RAD 210W, RAD 215, LWA 206B, LWA 206C each with a "C" (2.
0) minimum grade. Concurrent enrollment in RAD 135, RAD 140W, RAD 230, RAD 264. Continues radiographic positioning. Provides the knowledge and skill necessary to perform radiographic procedures of the cranium and facial regions. Includes pediatric, geriatric, surgical, and trauma applications for these procedures. (15-23)
Outcomes and Objectives
Demonstrate knowledge and proficiency in procedures of the skull, and sella turcica.
- List and locate all surface landmarks and lines pertaining to the cranium and sella turcica.
- Orally define the positioning and anatomy terms associated with the cranium and sella turcica.
- Identify the external landmarks which correspond to the level of the floor of the anterior cranium and level of the petrous ridge.
- List the eight cranial bones and identify the four bones composing the calvarium or "skull cap" and the four making up the "floor" of the cranium bones.
- Describe the relative locations or positions of the eight cranial bones and identify on drawings and radiograph the various portions or parts of each cranial bone.
- List and identify on drawings and radiographs the structures of the skull including the areas of the six fontanel or "soft spots" on newborns .
- Describe the correct angle (caudal/cephalad), the degree of angle and the line used to determine the angle on a PA Caldwell, and an axial AP projection.
- Identify the line which should be used as near parallel to the plane of the film as possible and describe the relationships of the CR to this line on a submentovertex projection.
- Position a fellow student/phantom for each of the basic and optional projections as described in the text or given in lecture.
- Position all the basic or optional projections in each of the following situations: (a) on a routine radiographic table, (b) on a vertical head unit, (c) on an erect table (d) on a grid holder, (e) on severely injured patients.
- Critique skull radiographs based on evaluation criteria provided in the textbook or in lecture.
- Discriminate between radiographs, which are acceptable, and those which are unacceptable due to exposure factors, collimation or positioning errors.
- List the number and names of specific adjoining cranial bones with which each cranial bone articulates.
- List the three terms describing the common shape classification of the cranium and identify the angles of the petrous pyramids for each classification.
- Describe the three main portions of the temporal bones.
- Identify on drawings the location and extent of the three divisions of the ear and give the name or names for each structure of the three portions of the ear.
- Describe the shape and relative positions of the three ossicles of the middle ear as seen from both a frontal and lateral view.
- Identify the distances between various structures of the ear and the distances from the table top to these structures in both frontal and lateral positions.
- List the two projections or positions used to best visualize the petrous portion of the temporal bone in addition to routine skull radiography.
Demonstrate knowledge and proficiency in procedure of the facial bones.
- List the fourteen facial bones (with correct spelling).
- Identify both on drawings and radiographs, anatomical parts of each facial bone as defined in the textbook and/or audio-visuals.
- Identify the two anatomical names for the "cheek" bone.
- List the names of specific cranial and facial bones with which each facial bone articulates.
- Identify the temporomandibular joints (on radiographs) and discriminate between those taken in the open mouth position and those taken in a closed mouth position.
- Describe the shape and the position of the bony orbits within the skull. Identify the angle formed between the cone-shaped orbits and the orbitomeatal line and between the cone-shaped orbits and the midsagittal plane.
- List the seven bones making up the orbits and identify which are facial bones and which are cranial bones.
- Identify on a dry skull each of the seven bones comprising the orbits as well as the three openings of the orbits.
- List the two basic projections or positions for a routine facial bone series and the optional position for the "floor" of the orbits.
- Describe the difference between the routine Waters and the modified Waters positions and describe what anatomical structures are best demonstrated on each.
- List the two basic projections or positions taken for a routine zygomatic arch series and the three optional positions or projections.
- List the two basic projections or positions for a routine mandible series. Describe the differences in positioning for the axiolateral to best visualize the ramus, the body, or the mentum.
- List the optional projections or positions, which best demonstrate the following specific parts of the mandible: (1) the upper rami and condyloid processes, (2) the mentum, and (3) the u-shaped outline of the body and mentum.
- List the two possible projections for the visualization of the temporomandibular joints and identify the reason for preceding TMJ radiography with routine mandible radiographs. Identify the reason for examining the TMJ's bilaterally and in both the open and closed mouth positions.
- Identify the special position commonly used to demonstrate the optic foramen. Describe the positioning line, which must be parallel to the central ray, and the degrees of angle between the midsagittal plane and the table top.
- Position on a model and/or phantom each of the basic and optional projections as described in the textbook and/or audio-visuals. Include the three different methods for taking each projection which are: (a) on a routine radiographic table, (b) on a vertical head unit or erect table or grid film holder, (c) modifications for severely injured patients.
- Critique assorted facial, mandibular, and orbital radiographs based on evaluation criteria provided in the textbook and/or audio-visuals.
- Discriminate between radiographs which are acceptable and those which are unacceptable due to exposure factors, collimation or positioning errors.
Demonstrate knowledge and proficiency in procedures of the sinuses.
- Locate the four groups of paranasal sinuses on either frontal or lateral view radiographs and list the usual number of sinuses in each group.
- List the four basic projections or positions for a routine paranasal sinus series.
- Position on a model and/or phantom each of the basic and optinal projections as described in the textbook and/or audiovisuals. Indclude the different methods for taking each projection, which are: (a) on a routine radiographic table, and (b) on a vertical head unit or erect table or grid film holder.
- Critique assorted paranasal sinus, mastoid, and temporal bone radiographs based on evaluation criteria provided in the textbook and/or audiovisuals.
- Discriminate between radiographs which are acceptable and those which are unacceptable because of exposure factors, collimation or positioning errors.