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Radiographic Procedures 3

RAD 215

Radiographic Procedures 3

RAD 215

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: RAD 100, RAD 105, RAD 108W, RAD 130, LW 206A each with a "C" (2.

0) minimum grade. Concurrent enrollment in RAD 110, RAD 120W, RAD 122, RAD 150, RAD 205W, RAD 210W, LWA 206B, LWA 206C. Continues radiographic positioning. Provides the knowledge and skill necessary to perform radiographic procedures of the shoulder girdle, bony thorax, cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, pelvis, hips, and femur. Includes pediatric, geriatric, surgical, and trauma applications for these procedures. (15-23)

Outcomes and Objectives

Demonstrate knowledge of anatomy and positioning for procedures involving the pelvis, hips and sacroiliac joints.

Objectives:

  • Identify, both on drawings and radiographs, all anatomy of the femur, hips and pelvis as described in the textbook, audio-visuals, or lecture.
  • Identify and locate on a patient the five positioning landmarks of the femur, hips and pelvis.
  • List the two divisions or cavities of the pelvis and describe the structural and functional differences of these two divisions.
  • List and describe three differences between the structure of the male and female pelvis.
  • Identify the correct classification and movement type for the joints of the femur and pelvis.
  • Identify the structure of the proximal femur used as a key indicator on the radiograph to determine sufficient internal rotation of the legs to achieve a true AP hip projection.
  • Determine the specific rotation position of the leg based on the appearance of the proximal femur.
  • List the basic projections, type and size of film holder, central ray location and anatomy best demonstrated for radiographic examinations of the femur, hips, pelvis and sacroiliac joints.
  • Position on a model and/or phantom the basic projections for the femur, hips, pelvis and sacroiliac joints.
  • Determine the sex of patients from radiographs of the pelvis.
  • Determine if rotation is present on radiographs of the pelvis.
  • Critique each radiograph based on evaluation criteria provided in the textbook and/or audio-visuals.
  • Discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable radiographs, based on exposure factors, collimation and positioning errors.
  • Given the necessary equipment and a simulated patient (articulated phantom), produce a diagnostic radiograph for the basic projections of the hips, pelvis, and sacroiliac joints.

Demonstrate knowledge of anatomy and positioning for procedures involving the lumbar spine, sacrum and coccyx.

Objectives:

  • List the five regions of the vertebral column with the correct number of vertebrae or segments in each.
  • List the two primary curves of the vertebral column normally present at birth.
  • List the two compensatory curves of the vertebral column which develop after birth.
  • Define and describe lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis.
  • Identify the anatomical parts of a typical vertebra on drawings, a dry skeleton and/or radiographs.
  • Identify the correct medical term for a "slipped disc" and describe what causes this condition.
  • Identify the two main portions of the intervertebral disc and describe their function.
  • List and describe the two classifications of joints present in the vertebral column.
  • Describe the condition known as spondylolisthesis.
  • Identify the correct anatomical structures for the parts of the "scotty dog" demonstrated on a 45 degree oblique lumbar radiograph.
  • List the basic and optional projections, size and position of film holder, central ray location, direction and degrees of angle of central ray if any, and anatomy best demonstrated on radiographic examination of the coccyx, sacrum, lumbosacral spine and L5-S1 junction.
  • Position a model or articulated phantom for the projections listed above.
  • Identify the correct vertebra or segment associated with the topographical landmarks of the iliac crest and the anterior superior iliac spine.
  • Indicate the correct zygapophyseal joints visualized on radiographs of anterior and posterior obliques of the lumbar spine.
  • Determine if the intervertebral disc spaces are "opened up" and well visualized.
  • Critique and evaluate each radiograph according to evaluation criteria described in the textbook and/or audio-visuals for each projection.
  • Discriminate between those radiographs which are unacceptable due to errors in positioning and incorrect exposure factors and those which are acceptable.
  • Describe what the errors are on the unacceptable radiographs and explain how they could be corrected.
  • Given the necessary equipment, produce a diagnostic radiograph for the basic and optional projections of the coccyx, sacrum, lumbosacral spine, and the L5-S1 junction. (Optional if equipment is available)

Demonstrate knowledge of anatomy and positioning for procedures involving the sternum and ribs.

Objectives:

  • Identify, on both drawings and radiographs, al anatomy of the sternum and ribs as described in this chapter of the textbook, audio-visuals or lecture.
  • Identify any pair of ribs as true, false, or floating ribs.
  • Identify on radiographs, the anterior and posterior ends of any rib.
  • Classify all joints in the bony thorax as to structural classification, mobility classification and movement type.
  • List the basic projections, type and size of film holder, central ray location, and anatomy best demonstrated for radiographic positioning of the sternum and ribs.
  • Simulate on a model and/or phantom the basic projections of the sternum and ribs.
  • List the variations in breathing instructions, SID, exposure length, and kvp which can be used to advantage when radiographing the sternum in the RAO position.
  • Identify all visible anatomical structures of the bony thorax as described in the textbook and/or audio-visuals.
  • Critique each radiograph based on evaluation criteria provided in the textbook and/or audio-visuals.
  • Discriminate between those radiographs which are acceptable and those which are unacceptable because of exposure factors, collimation or positioning errors.
  • Given the necessary equipment and a simulated patient (articulated phantom or sectional phantom), produce diagnostic radiographs for the basic projections of the sternum and ribs.

Demonstrate knowledge of anatomy and positioning for procedures involving the cervical and thoracic spine.

Objectives:

  • Identify, on drawings, radiographs, and on a skeleton all anatomy of the thoracic and cervical spine as described in the textbook, audio-visuals or lecture.
  • Identify those features of the thoracic and cervical vertebrae, which distinguish them from any other region.
  • Locate on an articulated skeleton, any costovertebral or costotransverse joint.
  • List one additional name for C1, C2, and C7.
  • Locate any specific vertebra from C1 to the coccyx by using other palpable bony landmarks.
  • Determine which position or projection of each section of the spine will best demonstrate zygapophyseal joints or intervertebral foramina, and whether the right or left side is being visualized.
  • List the basic and optional projections, size and type of film holder, central ray location, direction and angulation of the central ray, if necessary, and anatomy best demonstrated on radiographic examination of the thoracic and cervical spine.
  • Position a model or articulated phantom, to demonstrate the basic and optional projections as given in the textbook and/or audio-visuals for thoracic and cervical spines.
  • Critique and evaluate each radiograph according to evaluation criteria described in the textbook and/or audio-visuals.
  • Discriminate between radiographs which are acceptable and those which are unacceptable because of exposure factors, collimation, or overall lack of positioning accuracy.
  • Describe how any positioning or technical error could be corrected to produce a satisfactory result.
  • Given the necessary equipment, and an articulated or sectional phantom, produce a diagnostic radiograph for the basic and optional projections of the thoracic and cervical spine.