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Radiographic Procedures 1

RAD 130

Radiographic Procedures 1

RAD 130

Course Description

Admission to the Radiography Program. Concurrent enrollment in RAD 100, RAD 105, RAD 108W, LW 206A. Introduces the basic terminology of radiographic positioning. Provides the knowledge and skill necessary to perform radiographic procedures of the chest, upper and lower limbs. Includes pediatric, geriatric, surgical, and trauma applications for these procedures. (15-23)

Outcomes and Objectives

Demonstrate knowledge of the principles and terminology related to radiographic positioning.

Objectives:

  • Explain the structural organization of the body from the simplest to the most complex level.
  • List the ten body systems and describe the functions of each system.
  • Identify the two divisions of the skeletal system and list the total number of bones in the average adult.
  • Describe the three bone classifications and list examples of each classification.
  • Describe the ossification process and the primary and secondary bode formation centers.
  • Classify joints by their functional and structural characteristics.
  • Define and utilize basic positioning terminology to include general terminology, body planes, body surfaces, specific body positions, relationship terms, and terminology related to movement.
  • Explain the similarities and differences for these terms: position, projection, and view.
  • Describe the process of evaluating a radiograph for positioning accuracy and image quality.
  • Explain the importance of proper anatomical markers and radiographic identification.
  • Explain the two general rules of determining positioning routines and apply these principles to specific structures of the body.
  • Identify the major positioning landmarks of the body.
  • Define the four classifications of body habitus.

Demonstrate knowledge of anatomy and positioning related to chest radiography.

Objectives:

  • Identify and describe the structures constituting the airway.
  • Identify topographical landmarks used for central ray placement for chest radiography.
  • List the skeletal landmarks associated with organs of the respiratory system.
  • Identify specific structures of the bony thorax, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs and mediastinum.
  • Describe the technical and positioning qualities demonstrated on chest radiographs.
  • Explain the rationale for routinely taking chest radiographs in the upright position.
  • Practice positioning chest radiography (utilizing a model).
  • List the patient dose ranges for skin, midline, thyroid and breast for each projection of the chest.
  • Critique and evaluate chest radiographs based upon accepted evaluation criteria.
  • Identify all anatomy utilizing chest radiographs.
  • Distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable chest radiographs based upon accepted evaluation criteria.

Demonstrate knowledge of anatomy and positioning related to the upper limb.

Objectives:

  • Identify, both on drawings and radiographs, all detailed anatomy of the upper limb.
  • Identify the classification and movement type of each joint of the upper limb.
  • List the technical factors and the central ray locations for all basic and special projections for the thumb, fingers, hand, wrist, forearm, elbow, and humerus.
  • Describe which structures are best demonstrated with basic and special projections of the upper limb.
  • Based upon clinical situations, discuss examination routines necessary to assist the physicians with diagnosis of specific conditions or disease processes.
  • List the names and location of the radiographically significant fat pads and stripes of the wrist and elbow and describe the significance in radiographic interpretation.
  • List the skin and midline dose ranges and the relative differences between these doses for each body part of the upper limb.
  • Position on a model all basic and special projections for each body part of the upper limb.
  • List and describe the basic projections taken for an upper limb in a cast and the approximate exposure conversion guidelines.
  • Critique radiographs of specific positions of the upper limb based upon accepted evaluation criteria.
  • Discriminate between radiographs that are acceptable and those that are unacceptable based upon accepted criteria.

Demonstrate knowledge of anatomy and positioning related to the lower limb.

Objectives:

  • Identify, both on drawings and radiographs, all detailed anatomy of the lower limb.
  • Describe specific joints and anatomical relationships of joints of the lower limb.
  • Identify the classification and movement type of each joint of the lower limb.
  • List the technical factors and the central ray locations for all basic and special projections for the toes, foot, ankle, calcaneus, knee, patella, intercondylar fossa.
  • Describe which structures are best demonstrated with basic and special projections of the lower limb.
  • Calculate exposure factors converting non-cast limb to a cast utilizing the accepted conversion rule.
  • List the various patient dose ranges for each projection of the lower limb.
  • Position on a model all basic and special projections for each body part of the lower limb.
  • Critique radiographs of specific positions of the lower limb based upon accepted evaluation criteria.
  • Discriminate between radiographs that are acceptable and those that are unacceptable based upon accepted criteria.

Demonstrate knowledge of the principles of mobile and trauma radiography.

Objectives:

  • Define and describe terms for specific types of fractures and soft-tissue injuries.
  • List the projections taken for a post-reduction study of the limbs, to include open and closed reductions.
  • Explain the positioning principles that must be observed during trauma radiography.
  • List and describe the three grid use rules to prevent grid cutoff.
  • Describe the two primary types of mobile radiographic units and their operating principles.
  • List and describe the three cardinal rules of radiation protection as they apply to trauma and mobile radiography.
  • Describe the difference in exposure field levels with different orientations of the x-ray tube and intensifiers with the C-arm.
  • Describe projections for trauma and mobile procedures of the chest, upper and lower limbs.
  • Apply appropriate adaptations during practice of trauma and mobile radiography.