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Fundamentals of Radiography

RAD 105

Fundamentals of Radiography

RAD 105

Course Description

Prerequisite: Admission to the Radiography Program. Concurrent enrollment in RAD 100, RAD 108W, RAD 130, LW 206A. Provides the fundamental theory and skills related to the production of x-radiation. Emphasizes the basic components of radiographic equipment, the characteristics of radiation, and image formation. Includes methods of control of radiation and image recording systems. (30-30)

Outcomes and Objectives

Demonstrate an understanding of the basic components of radiographic equipment and their relationship to the production of x-radiation.

Objectives:

  • Discuss the discovery of x-rays and historical significance.
  • Identify the characteristics of x-rays.
  • Correlate energy, penetrating power, wavelength, and frequency.
  • State the speed of electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum.
  • State the three elements essential for the production of x-rays.
  • Diagram and identify the components of the x-ray tube.
  • State the function of each component of the x-ray tube.
  • Discriminate between a stationary and rotating anode tube.
  • Correlate the manipulation of the kV selector, mA selector, and time selector with the production of x-radiation within the tube.
  • Correlate filament current with thermionic emission.
  • Correlate filament size with focal spot size.
  • Discriminate between the actual focal spot and the effective focal spot.
  • Explain how milliamperage, kilovoltage and time affect the x-ray beam.
  • Differentiate between primary, secondary and remnant radiation.
  • Diagram and describe the Anode-Heel Effect.
  • Calculate heat units.
  • Determine the rating of an x-ray tube utilizing a tube rating chart.
  • Calculate the rate of heat dissipation utilizing a tube cooling chart.
  • Correlate the anode heat capacity with the heat dissipation rate.
  • Explain the types of tube cooling.

Demonstrate an understanding of the production and characteristics of radiation.

Objectives:

  • Define differential absorption.
  • Correlate the relationship of kVp and mA with differential absorption.
  • List two factors, which determine differential absorption of x-rays.
  • Explain exponential attenuation.
  • Define and describe secondary radiation.
  • Differentiate between radiopaque and radiolucent.
  • Differentiate between primary, secondary, and remnant radiation..
  • State the effects of kV and atomic number on the production of secondary radiation.
  • Compare the production of bremsstrahlung radiation with the production of characteristic radiation.
  • Discuss the relationships of wavelength and frequency to beam characteristics.

Demonstrate an understanding of radiographic image formation.

Objectives:

  • Correlate the quality of the x-ray beam with selective tissue absorption within the patient.
  • Relate the process of ionization to a silver bromide crystal exposed to x-radiation and/or light.
  • Explain the location, chemical composition, and the function of the sensitization speck.
  • Correlate the sensitization speck to the process of latent image formation.
  • List the steps involved in the formation of the latent image.

Demonstrate an understanding of x-ray film, handling and processing.

Objectives:

  • Diagram and label a cross-section of double emulsion radiographic film.
  • State the composition and function of each component of radiographic film.
  • Describe the chemical process of silver-bromide crystal production.
  • Differentiate between the different types of film and their application.
  • Describe film artifacts and list the causes.
  • Identify the components in the developer and fixer.
  • State the general and specific functions of each component in the developer and fixer.
  • Identify the main systems in the automatic processor and describe the role of each in radiographic processing.
  • Correlate latent image formation with visible image formation.

The student will demonstrate an understanding of image recording systems and their relationship to visible image formation.

Objectives:

  • Draw and label a cross-section of an intensifying screen.
  • Differentiate between fluorescence and phosphorescence.
  • Identify the compounds most commonly utilized in intensifying screens.
  • Explain the relationship between intensifying screens and latent image formation.
  • Discuss the principle characteristics of radiographic intensifying screens.
  • Discuss the importance of spectral matching of screens and films.
  • Explain the relationship between crystal size and speed of intensifying screens.
  • Explain the relationship between screen thickness and screen speed.
  • Correlate the use of intensifying screens with patient dose.

Demonstrate an understanding of methods of radiation control and their use.

Objectives:

  • Identify three classifications of beam restrictors.
  • Discuss the construction of each type of beam restrictor.
  • List the advantages and disadvantages of each type of beam restrictor.
  • Discuss PBL and its use in imaging.
  • Correlate the relationship between beam restrictors and scattered radiation.
  • State the purpose of a radiographic grid.
  • Explain the different types of grids.
  • Diagram and label a cross-section of a radiographic grid.
  • Explain the significance of grid ratio and grid frequency in relation to the remnant beam.
  • Compare and contrast stationary and moving grids.
  • Define beam filtration and the various types.
  • Explain the purpose of beam filtration related to patient dose and scattered radiation production.