Fundamentals of RadiographyRAD 105
Prerequisite: Admission to the Radiography Program. Concurrent enrollment in RAD 100, RAD 108W, RAD 130, LW 206A. Provides the fundamental theory and skills related to the production of x-radiation. Emphasizes the basic components of radiographic equipment, the characteristics of radiation, and image formation. Includes methods of control of radiation and image recording systems. (30-30)
Outcomes and Objectives
Demonstrate an understanding of the basic components of radiographic equipment and their relationship to the production of x-radiation.
- Discuss the discovery of x-rays and historical significance.
- Identify the characteristics of x-rays.
- Correlate energy, penetrating power, wavelength, and frequency.
- State the speed of electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum.
- State the three elements essential for the production of x-rays.
- Diagram and identify the components of the x-ray tube.
- State the function of each component of the x-ray tube.
- Discriminate between a stationary and rotating anode tube.
- Correlate the manipulation of the kV selector, mA selector, and time selector with the production of x-radiation within the tube.
- Correlate filament current with thermionic emission.
- Correlate filament size with focal spot size.
- Discriminate between the actual focal spot and the effective focal spot.
- Explain how milliamperage, kilovoltage and time affect the x-ray beam.
- Differentiate between primary, secondary and remnant radiation.
- Diagram and describe the Anode-Heel Effect.
- Calculate heat units.
- Determine the rating of an x-ray tube utilizing a tube rating chart.
- Calculate the rate of heat dissipation utilizing a tube cooling chart.
- Correlate the anode heat capacity with the heat dissipation rate.
- Explain the types of tube cooling.
Demonstrate an understanding of the production and characteristics of radiation.
- Define differential absorption.
- Correlate the relationship of kVp and mA with differential absorption.
- List two factors, which determine differential absorption of x-rays.
- Explain exponential attenuation.
- Define and describe secondary radiation.
- Differentiate between radiopaque and radiolucent.
- Differentiate between primary, secondary, and remnant radiation..
- State the effects of kV and atomic number on the production of secondary radiation.
- Compare the production of bremsstrahlung radiation with the production of characteristic radiation.
- Discuss the relationships of wavelength and frequency to beam characteristics.
Demonstrate an understanding of radiographic image formation.
- Correlate the quality of the x-ray beam with selective tissue absorption within the patient.
- Relate the process of ionization to a silver bromide crystal exposed to x-radiation and/or light.
- Explain the location, chemical composition, and the function of the sensitization speck.
- Correlate the sensitization speck to the process of latent image formation.
- List the steps involved in the formation of the latent image.
Demonstrate an understanding of x-ray film, handling and processing.
- Diagram and label a cross-section of double emulsion radiographic film.
- State the composition and function of each component of radiographic film.
- Describe the chemical process of silver-bromide crystal production.
- Differentiate between the different types of film and their application.
- Describe film artifacts and list the causes.
- Identify the components in the developer and fixer.
- State the general and specific functions of each component in the developer and fixer.
- Identify the main systems in the automatic processor and describe the role of each in radiographic processing.
- Correlate latent image formation with visible image formation.
The student will demonstrate an understanding of image recording systems and their relationship to visible image formation.
- Draw and label a cross-section of an intensifying screen.
- Differentiate between fluorescence and phosphorescence.
- Identify the compounds most commonly utilized in intensifying screens.
- Explain the relationship between intensifying screens and latent image formation.
- Discuss the principle characteristics of radiographic intensifying screens.
- Discuss the importance of spectral matching of screens and films.
- Explain the relationship between crystal size and speed of intensifying screens.
- Explain the relationship between screen thickness and screen speed.
- Correlate the use of intensifying screens with patient dose.
Demonstrate an understanding of methods of radiation control and their use.
- Identify three classifications of beam restrictors.
- Discuss the construction of each type of beam restrictor.
- List the advantages and disadvantages of each type of beam restrictor.
- Discuss PBL and its use in imaging.
- Correlate the relationship between beam restrictors and scattered radiation.
- State the purpose of a radiographic grid.
- Explain the different types of grids.
- Diagram and label a cross-section of a radiographic grid.
- Explain the significance of grid ratio and grid frequency in relation to the remnant beam.
- Compare and contrast stationary and moving grids.
- Define beam filtration and the various types.
- Explain the purpose of beam filtration related to patient dose and scattered radiation production.