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Clinical Neuroanatomy

PTA 102

Clinical Neuroanatomy

PTA 102

Course Description

Prerequisite: PTA 101, PTA 101LW, PTA 105, PTA 105LW, PTA 110, PTA 110L, ENG 113, and LW 206A, each with a "C" (2.0) minimum grade. Concurrent enrollment in PTA 120, PTA 120L, PTA 121, PTA 123W, PTA 123LW, PTA 124, PTA 125, PTA 125LW, and LWA 206B. Provides the neuroanatomy concepts necessary to implement procedures utilized in physical therapy practice. Prepares the student to perform physical therapy intervention as part of a physical therapist's plan of care, under the direction and supervision of the physical therapist. (30-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

Describe the nervous system in relation to its maturation and subdivisions.

Objectives:

  • Describe the three parts of the nervous system, including the central nervous system (CNS), Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), and the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS).
  • Describe the anatomy of the CNS including the cerebrum--its four lobes, the cerebellum, the brainstem (medulla, pons and midbrain) and state each function.
  • Identify the gray matter and the white matter and describe its function and spinal cord and relate it to nuclei and tracts.
  • Identify the 12 cranial nerves and list their functions.
  • Compare and contrast sympathetic nervous system responses to parasympathetic nervous system responses of the Autonomic Nervous System.
  • Compare and contrast somatic vs. autonomic nervous system.

Describe the meningeal and circulatory system of the CNS.

Objectives:

  • Describe, draw and label the three layers of the CNS .
  • Describe the function of the meninges relationship to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
  • Explain the flow distribution of CSF.
  • Describe, draw and label the cranial arterial circulation.

Describe the anatomy and function of the spinal cord.

Objectives:

  • Identify the anatomy of the spinal cord.
  • Identify the conus medullaris, filum terminale, and cauda equina in respect to the distal spinal cord region.
  • Compare and contrast the gray matter, white matter, ventral horn, and dorsal horn.
  • Differentiate between the levels of the spinal cord in respect to cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions.
  • Identify the gray matter and the white matter and describe its function and spinal cord and relate it to nuclei and tracts.
  • Identify the dorsal nerve root, ventral nerve root, and spinal nerve and relate these to motor and/or sensory function.
  • Compare afferent vs. efferent, sensory pathways vs. motor pathways, dorsal root vs. ventral root.

Describe the nervous system at its cellular level.

Objectives:

  • Identify the parts of the neuron and give the function of each part.
  • Describe the myelin sheath of the neuron and its purpose.
  • Compare the production of myelin in the CNS vs. PNS.
  • List the various types of glial cells in the CNS and state the function of each.
  • Compare nuclei vs. ganglia.
  • List names given to bundles of nerve fibers in the CNS vs. the PNS.
  • Distinguish between a neuron, fascicles, and nerve.

Describe the physiology involved in impulse transmission and synapses.

Objectives:

  • Describe impulse transmission along a neuron including resting membrane potential, chemical composition of the neuron, depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization, action potential, excitation, absolute refractory period, relative refractory period.
  • List factors affecting the rate of transmission of an impulse, including axon diameter and myelin sheath and describe each.
  • Draw a diagram depicting the Na+/K+ Pump.
  • Discuss the components of a synaptic event, including presynaptic terminal, synaptic cleft, postsynaptic membrane, and neurotransmitter.
  • Define motor end plate, myoneural junction and neuromuscular junction.
  • Define inhibitory neuron.
  • Define interneuron.
  • Identify the muscle spindle, including intrafusal fibers, extra fusal fibers, gamma motor units, group Ia afferents and group II afferents.
  • Relate GTO's to 1b sensory neurons.
  • Define the purpose of group III sensory neurons.

Explain the various routes that information is carried from the periphery to the CNS and the anatomy of these routes.

Objectives:

  • Explain the following spinal reflexes: stretch reflexes, flexor withdrawal reflexes and cross extension reflex.
  • Define muscle tone and relate it to hypotonia, hypertonia, spasticity and rigidity.
  • List the principal ascending and descending tracts of the spinal cord.
  • Compare pyramidal vs. extra pyramidal tracts.
  • Trace a nerve impulse from a sensory neuron in the skin to the brain and back to voluntary muscles including sensory neuron, interneuron, ascending tract, decussation, thalamus sensory cortex, motor cortex, descending tract, motor neuron.

Discuss the effects of various injuries to the nervous system.

Objectives:

  • Compare upper motor vs. lower motor lesion clinical effects.
  • Describe clinical results from spinal cord lesions.
  • Describe the process of nerve regeneration in the PNS and plasticity in the CNS.
  • Describe clinical symptoms that may result in CNS lesions in various parts of the brain, including cerebellum, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebrum (right vs. left hemisphere).
  • Describe clinical findings if arterial damage occurs within the brain.
  • Differentiate between CNS diseases, such as CVA, intercerebral hemorrhage, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and traumatic brain injury and relate it to changes in the function of the nervous system.

Discuss potential legal and ethical issues.

Objectives:

  • Describe an appropriate response to each legal/ethical issue discussed in class.