Please enable JavaScript to view this page.

Exercise Physiology

LWT 251

Exercise Physiology

LWT 251

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: BIO 101W or BIO 140W or BIO 152W.

Emphasizes the physiological responses of the human body to acute and chronic bouts of exercise. Presents the study of health/fitness appraisal, exercise prescription, quantifying the energy cost of work (physical activity), identifying physiological and psychological responses to exercise, and the administration of exercise programs to diverse populations. Credit may be earned in LWT 251 or BIO 251 but not both. (60-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

Describe and explain the concepts and components of Exercise Physiology.

Objectives:

  • Define the terms homeostasis and steady state.
  • Describe and explain the structure and function of the autonomic nervous system.
  • Contrast the role of neural adaptations to that of hypertrophy in the increase in strength that occurs with resistance training.
  • Explain the term negative feedback
  • Define the terms isotonic and isometric.
  • Describe health-related fitness using the wellness model.
  • Define what is meant by the gain of a control system
  • Describe and explain the following terms:
  • Identify the three major categories of risk factors and list examples of specific risk factors in each.
  • Describe factors influencing physical fitness in the United States over the past century.
  • Discuss the relationship between skeletal muscle fiber types and performance.
  • Describe the role of "personal responsibility" as a determinant of our well-being.
  • Discuss the function of the cell membrane, nucleus, and mitochondria.
  • Discuss the structure and function of a muscle group.
  • Describe and explain the difference between primary and secondary risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD).
  • Define the following terms: endergonic reactions, exergonic reactions, coupled reactions, first and second law of thermodynamics, and bioenergetics.
  • Describe and explain the function of Golgi tendon organ.
  • Identify the major risk factors associated CHD.
  • Describe the role of enzymes as catalysts in cellular chemical reactions.
  • Describe and explain the design and function of the circulatory system.
  • Identify the U.S. Dietary Goals relative to (a) carbohydrate and fats as a percent of energy intake, (b) salt and cholesterol, and (c) saturated and unsaturated fats.
  • Discuss the aerobic production of ATP.
  • Describe and explain the cardiac cycle and the associated electrical activity recorded via the electrocardiogram.
  • List the classes of nutrients.
  • Describe and explain general scheme used to regulate metabolic pathways involved in bioenergetics.
  • Discuss the pattern of redistribution of blood flow during exercise.
  • Identify the primary role of carbohydrates, the two major classes, and the recommended changes in the American diet to improve health status.
  • Discuss the interaction between aerobic and anaerobic ATP production during exercise.
  • List and discuss those factors responsible for the regulation of stroke volume during exercise.
  • Explain how a sum of skinfolds can be "converted" to a percent body fatness value.
  • Identify the enzymes that are considered rate limiting in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. .
  • Discuss the regulation of cardiac output during exercise.
  • List the recommended percent body fatness values for health and fitness for males and females, and explain the concern for both high and low values.
  • Discuss the relationship between exercise intensity/duration and the bioenergetics pathways that are most responsible for production of ATP during various types of exercise.
  • Explain the circulatory response to various types of exercise.
  • Distinguish between obesity due to hyperplasia of fat cells and that due to hypertrophy of fat cells.
  • Define the terms oxygen deficit, lactate threshold, and oxygen debt.
  • Identify the factors that regulate local blood flow during exercise.
  • Summarize the evidence on the order of recruitment of muscle fibers with increasing intensities of activity, and the type of metabolism upon which each is dependent.
  • Discuss several possible explanations for the sudden rise in blood-lactate concentration during incremental exercise.
  • Explain the principal physiological function of the pulmonary system.
  • Describe the factors limiting performance in all-out activities lasting less than ten seconds.
  • Explain why fat metabolism is dependent on carbohydrate metabolism
  • Identify and list the major muscles involved in inspiration and expiration at rest and during exercise.
  • Describe the factors limiting performance in all-out activities lasting 10-180 seconds.
  • Identify the four factors influencing the concentration of a hormone in the blood.
  • Discuss the major transportation modes of O2 and CO2 in the blood.
  • Define and describe the terms hyperthermia, hypothermia, hypoxia, and hyperoxia.
  • Describe and explain the mechanism by which steroid hormones act on cells.
  • Describe and explain the ventilatory response to constant load steady state exercise.
  • List the factors influencing hypothermia.
  • Identify the site of release, stimulus for release, and the predominant action of the following hormones: epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, insulin, cortisol, aldosterone, thyroxine, growth hormone, estrogen, and testosterone.
  • Define the term homeotherm.
  • List and describe the factors influencing the risk of heat injury.
  • Discuss the use of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) and growth hormone on muscle growth and their potential side effects.
  • Describe and explain the concept of "core temperature".
  • Describe the process of adaptation to altitude, and the degree to which this adaptation can be complete.
  • Describe the effect of changing hormone and substrate levels in the blood on the mobilization of free fatty acids from adipose tissue.
  • List and describe the four processes by which the body can lose heat during exercise.
  • Describe the changes in atmospheric pressure (PO2) air temperature, and air density with increasing altitude.
  • Define the terms work, power, energy, and gross efficiency.
  • Discuss the role of the hypothalamus as the body's thermostat.
  • Explain why such variability exists among athletes in the decrease in VO2 max upon exposure to altitude, the degree of improvement in VO2 max at altitude, and the gains made upon return to sea level.
  • Describe and explain the procedure used to calculate work performed during:
  • Identify and describe the physiological adaptations that occur during acclimatization to heat.
  • Define an ergogenic aid.
  • Define the following terms:
  • Describe the physiological responses to a cold environment.
  • Explain why a "placebo" treatment in a "double-blind design" is used in research studies involving ergogenic aids.
  • Describe and explain the procedure used to calculate gross efficiency during steady state exercise.
  • Explain the basic principles of training; overload and specificity.
  • Describe the effect of additional oxygen on performance; distinguish between hyperbaric oxygenation and that accomplished by breathing oxygen-enriched gas mixtures.
  • Discuss the general organization of the nervous system.
  • State typical VO2 max values for various patient, sedentary, active, and athletic populations.
  • Describe the various mechanisms by which caffeine might improve performance.
  • Describe the structure and function of a nerve.
  • Describe and explain how the increase in VO2 max comes about for the sedentary subject who participates in an endurance training program.

Demonstrate the concepts and components of Exercise Physiology

Objectives:

  • Diagram a biological control system.
  • Draw and label the pathways involved in a withdrawal reflex.
  • Diagram a typical cell and its major organelles.
  • Diagram the compounds, enzymes, and reactions involved in the Krebs cycle.
  • Draw a summary graph of the changes in the following hormones with exercise of increasing intensity or duration: insulin, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.
  • Calculate the amount of work performed during exercise using a cycle ergometer.
  • Calculate the estimated O2 cost of horizontal treadmill running and cycle ergometer performance.
  • Draw and label the pathways involved in a withdrawal reflex.
  • Draw a simple chart illustrating the organization of the nervous system.
  • Draw and label the microstructure of the skeletal muscle.
  • Outline the steps leading to muscle contraction.
  • Graph the relationship between movement velocity and the amount of force exerted during muscular contraction.
  • Outline the circulatory responses to various types of exercise.
  • Draw and diagram the conduction system of the heart.
  • Graph the changes that occur in heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output during prolonged exercise.
  • Outline the cardiac cycle and the associated electrical activity recorded via the electrocardiogram.
  • Outline the major anatomical components of the respiratory system.
  • Graph the ventilator response in the transition from rest to constant-load submaximal exercise.
  • Present an overview of heat balance during exercise.
  • Write and calculate V02 max using heart rate, stroke volume, and the a-v 02 difference.
  • Calculate energy from essential nutrients, diets, and alcohol.
  • Calculate target body weights.
  • Draw a graph to show the effect of altitude on VO2 max and list the reasons for this response.
  • Graphically describe the effect of altitude on the heart rate and ventilation responses to submaximal work.