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The Science of Nutrition and Exercise

LW 222

The Science of Nutrition and Exercise

LW 222

Course Description

Prerequisite: READING LEVEL 2. Presents nutrition science as a key element for optimal living and health. Plans and reviews diets, principles, food nutrients, metabolism, and diet analysis. Evaluates health effects of nutrition. Introduces fitness and wellness principles and integrates with nutrition through various conditioning exercises. (45-15)

Outcomes and Objectives

Describe, explain, and apply nutritional concepts for optimal health, weight management, and the prevention of disease.

Objectives:

  • Advise proper eating plans by utilizing diet planning principles, the Food Pyramid, MyPlate, and other food guide plans that incorporate personal food preferences.
  • Compare and contrast how a traditional American-based diet and diets from other countries can affect health.
  • List and describe the four energy sources.
  • Explain the health risks associated with a high fat diet for people suffering from the following conditions: heart disease, Type II diabetes, and cancer.
  • List and describe the six classes of nutrients.
  • Describe the role of Macronutrients.
  • Explain the primary difference between energy and non-energy-yielding nutrients.
  • Define health body weights and body composition levels.
  • Distinguish between simple and complex carbohydrates in form and function, and the health effects associated with carbohydrate intake, including fiber and sugar intake.
  • Describe the methods of determining body weight and body composition.
  • List and describe the 20 common amino acids; the 9 essential and 11 non-essential.
  • State health risk factors associated with being over or underweight.
  • Differentiate between members of the lipid family; triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols, in form and function and the health effects associated with lipid intake, especially triglyceride and cholesterol intake.
  • Describe causes of obesity.
  • Describe the factors associates with weight control, including causes of obesity, methods of assessing body weight and composition, and the good and poor treatments for obesity.
  • Explain good treatment choices for weight loss.
  • Describe free radicals and explain the impact diet and exercise have on them.
  • Analyze dietary intakes and advise according to the DRI's, valid nutritional research, and optimal health and disease prevention.
  • Describe the function of water in the body and explain how electrolytes/fluids are balanced and maintained in the body.
  • Calculate daily caloric intakes and the macro-nutrient percent ranges and advise meal planning according to current dietary guidelines.
  • Explain the impact of nutrition and lifestyle choices on the immune system and on diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, AIDS, osteoporosis.
  • Demonstrate the use of various dietary analysis software.
  • Describe factors that affect food choices.
  • Discuss how biotechnology is changing characteristics and types of foods available.
  • Define the science of nutrition.
  • Describe diets strongly associated with low rates of chronic heart disease and cancer; those containing vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.
  • Cite the 10 leading causes of illness and death in the Unites States.
  • List the functions of water: maintenance of the body hydration and temperature; removal of waste products; participation in energy formation; major source of fluoride.
  • Identify and describe serving sizes of various food groups.
  • List and describe various methods of assessing body fat.
  • Describe the components of a food label.
  • Describe how the development of nutrition as a science has influenced what people eat.
  • Define simple and complex carbohydrates and provide examples.
  • Describe the health effects of simple and complex carbohydrates intake and cite the recommended intake of each.
  • Define fiber, including the characteristics of the different types of fiber, how fiber differs from starch, and how fibers are classified.
  • Identify the members of the lipid family.
  • Explain the basic function of lipids in the body and in foods.
  • Describe the process and controversy surrounding hydrogenation.
  • List and explain the differences between saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fatty acids, and provide examples of food sources for each.
  • Cite the recommended intakes of total dietary fat, saturated, fat, and dietary cholesterol.
  • Suggest practical ways to reduce total dietary fat, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol.

Describe, explain, and apply metabolism, digestion, absorption, and nutritional bioavailability concepts as they relate to nutritional research and health.

Objectives:

  • Describe the digestive system, including problems that it encounters and solves during the digestive process.
  • Explain the steps involved in metabolism and the ways energy is derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, including the consequences of consuming too much or too little energy.
  • Identify and describe the basic route of food followed through the GI tract.
  • Describe the muscular action of digestion.
  • List the digestive organs/enzymes and their secretions that promote the breakdown of food.
  • Briefly describe the anatomy of the absorptive system.
  • Describe the basic transportation routes absorbed nutrients take in order to be delivered to and used by the body.
  • Explain how the body regulates digestion and absorption.
  • Describe the basic steps involved in the metabolism of the absorbed starch.
  • Summarize the basic steps of blood glucose regulation.
  • Explain how fiber is digested and absorbed.
  • Describe the basic steps involved in the digestion, absorption, and transport of macro nutrients.
  • Briefly explain how fat is metabolized.
  • Describe the origin, function, and health implications of fat substitutes/fake fats.
  • Describe digestion and absorption of macronutrients.
  • Define metabolism and energy metabolism.
  • Describe the process of glycolysis.
  • Describe what happens to metabolism during fasting/starvation.
  • Describe energy balance.
  • Define and describe thermogenesis.
  • Explain the function of coenzymes.
  • Describe the factors that enhance or inhibit absorption of nutrients.
  • Explain how trace minerals interact with each other during the digestion and absorption process.
  • Describe how medications, diseases, and biological processes influence adults' requirements for essential nutrients.
  • List and describe digestive disorders and explain their relationship to dietary intake.

Describe, explain, and apply nutritional needs for special populations and those with chronic disease.

Objectives:

  • Explain the health effects of protein intake.
  • Describe protein energy malnutrition.
  • Explain how vegetarians and non-vegetarians obtain adequate protein.
  • Describe how nutrition and lifestyle choices impact the life-cycle before and during pregnancy, during lactation and infancy, during childhood and adolescence, and through adulthood and aging.
  • Explain the composition, function, and fat of the lipoproteins - VLDL, LDL, and HDL.
  • Describe the purpose of a blood lipid profile.
  • List the recommended protein intake for specific groups of people.
  • Differentiate the health effects of vegetarian vs. non-vegetarian eating plans.
  • Explain the differences between anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
  • Explain why the fetus is not considered a parasite.
  • Discuss how adult risk of chronic diseases is affected by maternal and infant nutrition.
  • List reasons why breastfeeding is the best method for nourishing an infant.
  • Describe growth and development during infancy as faster than any other time.
  • Recognize that children are not born knowing what to eat.
  • Discuss a child's ability to regulate how much he or she eats.
  • Explain how diet and behavior will affect later health.
  • Identify and explain the differences in infant, toddler, child, and adolescent nutritional needs and dietary recommendations.
  • Describe how dietary intake, body weight, and physical activity influence health status with age.
  • List chronic disorders associated with unhealthful intakes of certain minerals; osteoporosis, iron deficiency, and hypertension.

Discuss and apply nutrition strategies for enhancing athletic performance.

Objectives:

  • Provide accurate information regarding vitamin/mineral supplementation and the use of ergogenic aids in athletic performance.
  • List and describe the fuels necessary for physical performance and to sustain daily activity.
  • State how protein quality is determined.
  • Describe the effects of protein and amino acid supplements.
  • Define ATP and explain how the body uses ATP.
  • Describe how foods affect daily activity and athletic performance.
  • List and discuss the currently proven ergogenic aids.
  • Define and describe glycogen loading and its effect on athletic performance.
  • Calculate appropriate hydration rates for various athletic events.
  • Identify and explain the importance of pre and post workout nutrition.
  • Explain why and how glucose is utilized for intense physical activity.
  • Explain why and how fates are utilized for low-to-moderate intensity exercise.
  • Discuss how physical activity performance, strength, and endurance is affected by genetics, training, and nutrition.
  • Detail the causes of abnormal menstrual cycles in female athletes and suggest how these should be corrected.

Describe, explain, and apply the health related components of an exercise program and their relationship to the prevention of disease.

Objectives:

  • List and describe the benefits associated with physical activity.
  • List and describe the five health related components of fitness; cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition.
  • State the guidelines for developing and maintaining fitness.
  • Identify the function of the following major muscle groups and list exercises that can be done to strengthen each; tricep, bicep, deltoid, latissimus dorsi, glute, quadriceps, hamstring, pectoral, gastrocnemius, and rectus adfominus.
  • Calculate caloric expenditure through physical activities.
  • Calculate heart rate zones for achieving optimal cardiorespiratory benefits.
  • Demonstrate safe and effective fitness activity exercises.
  • Develop personalized fitness programs that achieve optimal enhancement of the five health related components of fitness.
  • Describe the physical and mental health benefits that usually come with physical fitness and good nutrition.

Describe and explain vitamin and mineral DRI's, dietary supplements, phytochemicals, antioxidants, and ergogenic aids.

Objectives:

  • Explain the differences between water and fat soluble vitamins, including the ways each one functions in the body, the deficiency/toxicity symptoms, and the major food sources.
  • State which vitamins have antioxidant effects and what those effects are.
  • Describe the impact of artificial sweeteners.
  • Explain the health effects that a high protein fad diet will have on individuals.
  • Identify the fat and water soluble vitamins.
  • Define antioxidants and explain the effects of them on the body.
  • Describe the primary functions of the following vitamins, list deficiency/toxicity symptoms, and identify major food sources for each: Vitamins A, C, E, B's, D, and K.
  • State the positive and negative effects of dietary supplementation.
  • Identify the major minerals according to the following criteria:
  • Identify the trace minerals according to the identical criteria listed above.
  • Recognize that dietary supplements do not have to be sown to be safe or effective.
  • Define vitamins and chemicals in food required for normal growth and health.
  • Discuss how intakes below and above range impair health.
  • Explain why food is the preferred source of vitamins and minerals.