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Ultrasound Physics and Instrumentation II

DMS 115

Ultrasound Physics and Instrumentation II

DMS 115

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: DMS 101, DMS 103, DMS 104, and DMS 106, all with a "B" (3.

0) minimum grade and LW 206A with a "C" (2.0) minimum grade. Concurrent enrollment in DMS 112, DMS 113, DMS 114, DMS 116, and DMS 117. Presents the fundamentals of Doppler ultrasound, scanning artifacts, quality assurance, and biologic effects, and safety. Includes an overview of the components of an ultrasound system. (30-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

Demonstrate the basics of ultrasound physics.

Objectives:

  • Define basic ultrasound physics formulas.
  • Describe the parameteres of a sound wave.
  • Explain the differences with pulsed ultrasound.
  • Describe attenuation.
  • Define and explain axial and lateral resolution.
  • Explain the effects of focusing.
  • Distinguish between refraction and reflection.
  • Describe ultrasound imaging modes.

Demonstrate understanding of the fundamental principles of Doppler ultrasound for use in the clinical setting.

Objectives:

  • Define "Doppler Shift".
  • Differentiate between speed and velocity.
  • Explain the relationship between frequency and blood flow.
  • Explain the relationship between frequency and angle.
  • Describe the Doppler equation.
  • Identify the known elements of the Doppler equation.
  • Describe the difference between continuous wave and pulsed wave doppler.
  • Understand doppler signal processing.
  • Define spectral analysis.
  • Describe the three methods of Doppler signal processing.

Demonstrate understanding of the fundamental principles of color Doppler ultrasound for use in the clinical setting.

Objectives:

  • Define color flow Doppler.
  • Explain the steps in creating a color flow image.
  • Interpret color maps.
  • Describe the difference between velocity mode and variance mode.
  • Identify the technique of choice for spectral analysis of color flow Doppler.

Demonstrate understanding of the components of an ultrasound system.

Objectives:

  • List the six electrical components of an ultrasound system.
  • Describe the function of a pulser.
  • List the three pulser modes.
  • Describe the function of the receiver.
  • Define the term "compensation".
  • Diagram a TGC curve.
  • Explain compression and demodulation.
  • Identify a cathode ray tube and describe its basic function.
  • Describe the function of a scan converter.
  • Differentiate between pre and post processing.
  • Differentiate between analog and digital scan converters.

Define and identify artifacts in clinical scanning.

Objectives:

  • Differentiate between axial and lateral resolution.
  • Describe enhancement.
  • Explain propagation speed error.

Describe and adequately perform ultrasound quality assurance.

Objectives:

  • Define quality assurance.
  • List the four requirements for a quality assurance program.
  • Identify the various types of test objects used in quality assurance.
  • Describe and perform performance measurements.
  • Explain what a hydrophone is used for.
  • Explain the difference between a calorimeter and a thermocouple.

Demonstrate understanding of the biological effects and safety of ultrasound.

Objectives:

  • Define dosimetry.
  • Differentiate between mechanistic and empirical approaches to study bioeffects.
  • Explain the proposal of thermal mechanism.
  • Describe cavitation.
  • Differentiate between stable and transient cavitation.
  • Define epidemiology.
  • Be familiar with the AIUM statements on the following:

Demonstrate an understanding of the various methods of ultrasound imaging and display.

Objectives:

  • Describe A-mode, M-mode, and B-mode imaging.
  • Define real-time imaging.
  • Explain the difference between mechanical and array transducers.
  • Differentiate between switched array and phased array focusing.
  • Define a vector array transducer.
  • Identify image shape in relation to transducer type.

Demonstrate an understanding of ultrasound harmonic imaging.

Objectives:

  • Define harmonic imaging.
  • Define the fundamental frequency.
  • Distinguish between tissue and contrast harmonics.
  • Explain the mechanical index.