Please enable JavaScript to view this page.

Ultrasound Physics and Instrumentation I

DMS 105W

Ultrasound Physics and Instrumentation I

DMS 105W

Course Description

Prerequisite: Must be accepted into the DMS program or have consent of instructor. Concurrent enrollment in DMS 100, DMS 107, DMS 107L, DMS 108W. Introduces the basic acoustic physics including a history of instrumentation, ultrasonic propagation principles, transducer parameters, and basic equipment types. (30-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

Understand ultrasonic propagation and how they relate to ultrasonic imaging.

Objectives:

  • Know the definition of sound and understand the relation of sound waves to ultrasound imaging.
  • Know the definition and units of a period along with the typical values of ultrasound period in clinical diagnostic imaging.
  • Know the definitions, units, and formula for frequency and the typical value of ultrasound frequency in clinical imaging.
  • Identify the three parameters that relate to the size of a sound wave.
  • Know the definition and units of amplitude.
  • Describe how power relates to the strength of the sound wave and know the units for power.
  • Differentiate how power is related to amplitude.
  • Know the definition and units of intensity and the typical values of ultrasound intensity in clinical imaging.
  • Identify the formula and units for wavelength.
  • Differentiate how propagation speed relates to the medium through which sound travels.
  • State the average speed of sound in biologic "soft tissue".
  • Define a pulse of ultrasound and the 5 descriptors of pulsed ultrasound.
  • Know the definition and units of pulse duration along with typical ranges in clinical imaging.
  • Describe pulse repetition period and how it relates to imaging depth.
  • Know the definition and units of pulse repetition frequency and the range in clinical imaging.
  • Identify the formula for Duty factor and the range for clinical imaging.
  • Correlate spatial pulse length to wavelength, frequency, cycles, and pulse.

Demonstrate an understanding of ultrasound intensities and how they relate to attenuation of traveling sound.

Objectives:

  • Understand the definition of intensity and know the units it is expressed in.
  • Describe the four ways to measure intensity.
  • Identify the formula for Beam Uniformity Coefficient and how it relates to intensity.
  • Demonstrate how to convert from one intensity to another.
  • Explain what the unit Decibel is used to describe and know the difference between negative and positive decibels.
  • Know the definition of attenuation and how it relates to the sound wave.
  • In the clinical setting, determine what frequency transducer to use in relation to the amount of attenuation.
  • Identify the three processes that attenuation results from.
  • Explain Rayleigh scattering.
  • Calculate the Attenuation Coefficient for a given set of parameters.
  • State the formula for Half-value Layer thickness.
  • Know the definition and units of impedance.

Demonstrate an understanding of ultrasonic beam transmission.

Objectives:

  • Know the relationship between intensity and transmission in clinical imaging.
  • State the definition of Intensity Reflection Coefficient and Intensity Transmission Coefficient.
  • Explain normal incidence and its relation to reflection and transmission.
  • Determine how refraction is associated with transmission.
  • Define Snell's law.
  • Discuss the Range equation and how an ultrasound imaging system determines the depth of a reflecting surface.
  • Understand what a transducer is, and what a transducer does in the process of clinical imaging.
  • Name the components of a transducer.
  • Identify the formula for the operating frequency of a transducer.
  • Explain how bandwidth related to the frequency of a transducer.

Demonstrate an understanding of sound beams and their effect on resolution.

Objectives:

  • Diagram the anatomy of a sound beam.
  • Understand Huygen's principle.
  • Explain beam characteristics in relation to crystal attributes.
  • Describe the four methods of focusing.
  • List factors that affect resolution.
  • Compare longitudinal and lateral resolution.