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Pharmacology for Dental Hygiene I

DH 124A

Pharmacology for Dental Hygiene I

DH 124A

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: DH 110, DH 111, DH 112, DH 114, DH 115, DH 116, and DH 118 each with a C (2.

0) minimum grade. Concurrent enrollment in DH 120, DH 121, DH 122, DH 123, DH 123L, DH 125 and LW 206A. Provides introduction to drugs regarding terminology, action of drug, dosage, and precautions. (15-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

Communicate effectively with patients and colleagues regarding drugs. In addition the student will be able to research information about the drug from the written prescription, classification and common drug references.

Objectives:

  • Define the following:
  • List and explain the tests a substance must go through before being approved by the F.D.A.
  • Briefly state what the three regulatory agencies (F.D.A., F.T.C., and D.E.A.) control.
  • List the five major publications discussed in class.
  • State of each of major publication:
  • Name the two publications that establish the chemical and physical properties of drugs, which the F.D.A. enforces.
  • Explain the difference between generic, trade, and chemical name drugs.
  • List the problems and advantages of using either the trade or generic name.
  • Define enteral and parenteral routes.
  • List the advantages and disadvantages of the following routes: oral, rectal, I.V., I.M., subcutaneous, inhalation, and topical.
  • List the two things a prescription must do.
  • List the meanings of common abbreviations used in prescription writing.
  • List the classical parts and what information belongs in which part of the prescription.
  • List the modern parts and what information belongs in which part of the prescription.
  • Write a prescription with the above three objectives in mind be able to (i.e., information in wrong order, abbreviation to full meaning).
  • Explain the five schedules and state how the drug is classified within each schedule.
  • Identify the federal and state drug laws realted to:

Understand and apply information effectively in the areas of drug: action, dosage, safety, administration, pharmacokinetics and adverse reactions.

Objectives:

  • List the considerations you should take in drug administration.
  • List where else the drug can go besides site of action.
  • Define excipient and list examples with reason they might be added.
  • List the states drugs may be in plasma.
  • Define drug receptor (binding site).
  • Identify the characteristics of drug states in plasma.
  • Name the types of bonds formed between the drug and the drug receptor.
  • Define specific and nonspecific tissue.
  • Define drug affinity.
  • Identify what drug states can occur within the cell.
  • State how the drug affinity is related to drug potency.
  • List what would happen with many drugs if there were no storage sites.
  • Define intrinsic activity of a drug.
  • List the properties of CNS and the placenta that relate to distribution of drugs to these areas.
  • Define agonist, full agonist, partial agonist, competitive antagonist (competitive blocking agents) and noncompetitive antagonist.
  • Define redistribution.
  • Describe how a drug produces a pharmacological action.
  • List what effects the time of distribution.
  • Describe the difference between pharmacological receptors and pharmacological acceptors.
  • Define drug biotransformation.
  • Identify the main fundamental axiom of pharmacology.
  • List the three types of biotransformation equations of drugs.
  • Identify what the specificity between drugs and binding sites defines.
  • List and define the four types of reactions that can occur within the above-mentioned equations.
  • Define qualitative and quantitative aspects of drug action.
  • Explain where and how drugs may be excreted.
  • Describe the following differences between drugs on the graph given a graded dose-response curve.
  • Calculate the quantity dose-response curve, given the following:
  • List the differences of the undesirable responses (i.e., how, why, what happens, etc.)
  • Chart the following on respective areas, given a graph of drug response-time relation,
  • Describe what a loading dose is, and how it works.
  • Define absorption.
  • List the factors that affect absorption.
  • Describe how the ph of the environment affects weak acids and weak bases.
  • List the properties of drugs and how they relate to passage through the cell membrane.
  • Define and give characteristics of:
  • Describe the structure of a cell membrane as it relates to pharmacologic actions.
  • Define distribution.
  • State the primary purpose of distribution.

Understand the effects of the autonomic drugs patients are taking for medical or dental reasons.

Objectives:

  • List the divisions of the autonomic nervous system.
  • List for each division the following:
  • List the general functions of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.
  • Define neurotransmitter.
  • List how a neurotransmitter is terminated.
  • List how drugs work within the autonomic nervous system.
  • Identify where acetylcholine acts as a chemical mediator in the autonomic nervous system.
  • List the chemical mediators of the sympathetic postganglionic fibers.
  • Define cholinergic and adrenergic nerves.
  • State the action of acetylcholine esterase.
  • List the five ways drugs work to have action on the parasympathetic division and the general name given to each drug class.
  • State examples given in lecture and book section in ATL of types of drugs and what each drug does, i.e., cholinergic drug, choline esters - fall in blood pressure, etc., (know thoroughly atropine and scopolamine).
  • State why the steps of synthesis of epinephrine and norepinephrine are important.
  • List the two types of adrenergic receptors and what happens when they are stimulated.
  • State which receptor is more predominant in the following tissues:

Understand the effects of anti-infective agents including the oral cavity. The student must be able to recognize the need for premedication in various cases.

Objectives:

  • Define antimicrobial agents.
  • List the two types of anti-infectant and how they are administered.
  • List the characteristic of each anti-infective.
  • Identify the use of anti-infective agents in dental hygiene.
  • Identify the common characteristics of local anti-infective agents.
  • List and explain the factors that influence effectiveness of anti-infective agents.
  • List the factors influencing the effectiveness of antibiotics.
  • Define:
  • List the commonly used antibiotics and their use for treatment in dentistry.
  • List the antiviral antibiotic and its use in dentistry.
  • List the antifungal antibiotic and its use in dentistry.
  • List the gingival retraction agents and their use in dentistry.
  • Explain the following interactions:

Understand the control of pain with the use of nonopioid analgesics and opiod analgesics including the desired and adverse effects.

Objectives:

  • List the parts of the pain experience.
  • List the two types of pain and their characteristics.
  • Describe the classifications of analgesics.
  • Define the ceiling concept.
  • List the commonly used nonopioid analgesics and opiod analgesics drugs used in dentistry.
  • List the commonly used opiods used in dentistry. Also explain their respective:
  • Identify the use for non-narcotic analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
  • Identify drugs for migraine headaches.