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Dental Radiography

DH 123

Dental Radiography

DH 123

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: DH 110, 111, 112, 114, 115, 116, and 118 each with a C (2.

0) minimum grade. Presents theory of characteristics of radiation, components and functions of x-ray equipment, x-ray production, radiation biology and safety as well as processing and technical errors. (30-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

Describe the atomic structure and the ionization process.

Objectives:

  • Briefly outline the sequence of events during the development of radiology since l895. In particular, to identify the following names and dates and be able to explain the significance of each
  • Describe a simple model for the structure of the atom and to list the principal constituent parts according to the mass and charge.
  • Define the following terms:
  • Describe and differentiate the following types of radiation:
  • Identify the speed, frequency, wavelength and energy ranges for the radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Cognizant of the diagnostic uses of various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.
  • Identify and describe the following terms and explain their interrelationships and significance and/or function:
  • Explain the theory of ionization in layman's terms.
  • Describe the four basic types of interaction between x-radiation and matter.
  • Define the following terms:

Explain the production of X-radiation and explain how the quality is maintained.

Objectives:

  • Explain the following electrical terms:
  • Explain the significance, function, and fabrication of the following x-ray machine components:
  • Explain the uses of the following in dental radiography:
  • Be able to draw, label, and explain the simple x-ray machine-wiring diagram and describe the sequence of events leading to the production of radiation.
  • Briefly describe the factors necessary for production of x-rays.
  • Describe the following properties of x-radiation and explain their significance and/or function:
  • Differentiate the following terms and explain their significance:
  • Define the following, as they apply to dental radiographic film and images:
  • Describe means of adjusting contrast and outline the significance of contrast in radiographic imaging.
  • List and describe the factors that affect radiographic density.
  • Define the following as they apply to dental radiographic images:
  • List and describe the factors that affect distortion.
  • List and describe the factors that affect magnification.
  • List and describe the factors that affect sharpness and resolution.
  • Describe what is meant by radiation quality and quantity.
  • Understand the concept of half-value layer with regard to the x-ray beam quality and the basic method by which it is determined.

Explain how radiation can affect the body and explain how to protect the operator and the patient from unnecessary radiation exposure.

Objectives:

  • Classify the various body tissues as to their radiosensitivity.
  • Describe the sequence of radiation sickness.
  • Discuss the effects of ionizing radiation on tissues of the human body.
  • List difference in the production of biologic effects by high and low level exposure to radiation.
  • Explain what x-ray protective procedures should be used in dental office.
  • Discuss how you would relieve a patient's concern over radiation danger from dental x-rays.
  • Be knowledgeable of the guidelines for maximum permissible doses of radiation:
  • Identify and describe the following measures for operator protection:
  • Define the following terms and explain the significant function of each:
  • Review the following types of radiation and their effects on the body:
  • Describe the legal aspects of dental radiology and the value for personnel monitoring.
  • Define the following terms:
  • Describe the direct versus indirect theories of biological effects.
  • Describe the critical organ concept and the rationale of the maximum permissible dose (MPD) limits.
  • Identify the types of genetic effects radiation exposure may produce.
  • Identify the types of somatic effects radiation exposure may produce.
  • Describe the A.L.A.R.A. (as low as reasonably achievable)

Demonstrate the detection of caries and pathology on radiographs.

Objectives:

  • Define the following terms:
  • Identify and define the following optical illusions which may interfere with radiographic interpretation:
  • Explain the systematic approach to radiographic interpretation.
  • Explain your role as a hygienist in interpreting and diagnosing radiographs.
  • What type of contrast film is needed for caries detection?
  • Explain and identify the following types of carious lesions:
  • Discuss the limitations and benefits of radiographs in periodontal diagnosis.
  • Recognize radiographic changes associated with early, moderate and advanced stages of periodontal disease.
  • Recognize contributing factors to periodontal disease such as calculus, restorations, root design and malposition of teeth.
  • Identify the following items on radiographs:
  • Explain the purpose of using a viewbox, dim lighting, and a magnifying glass.
  • Identify the abnormalities listed on the next two pages.

Explain the design of a darkroom, the chemicals used in the darkroom, and how to process a film.

Objectives:

  • Describe proper darkroom design and the function of equipment used in a darkroom.
  • Identify the components of developing and fixing solutions and explain their significance and/or functions.
  • Differentiate between manual, rapid, and automatic processing.

Identify the various skull films.

Objectives:

  • Discuss the various extraoral skull positions and what each will demonstrate:
  • Know and understand the following terms:
  • Explain what is a sialogram?