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Oral Histology and Embryology

DH 122

Oral Histology and Embryology

DH 122

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: DH 110, 111, 112, 114, 115, 116, and 118 each with a C (2.

0) minimum grade. Provides theory of the embryological development of the oral cavity and identification and classifications of normal and abnormal conditions of the oral cavity and supporting structures. Includes microscopic study of the histology of the human dentition and the surrounding supporting structures. (45-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

Describe a cell and the four basic tissues, the tissues of the oral cavity and mucosa.

Objectives:

  • Define each of the following terms:
  • Explain the structure and contents of an individual cell.
  • List and describe the four basic types of tissues. Include functions for each tissue.
  • Describe the two basic tissues of the oral mucosa.
  • List and describe the three types of mucosa in the oral cavity.

Describe each stage of tooth and root development and tooth eruption.

Objectives:

  • Describe the stage of initiation during tooth development.
  • Draw a picture of the initiation stage.
  • Identify the time period for the initiation stage.
  • Define the following terms:
  • Identify and describe three development problems that may occur during initiation.
  • Identify the time frame for the bud stage.
  • Draw and label a picture of the bud stage.
  • Describe what occurs during the bud stage.
  • Define the following terms:
  • Identify two abnormalities that may develop during the bud stage.
  • Identify why these abnormalities may occur during the bud stage.
  • Identify the time frame for development during the cap stage.
  • Identify what occurs during the cap stage.
  • Draw and label a picture of the cap stage.
  • Define the following term:
  • Describe the timeframe that the bell stage occurs.
  • Describe what occurs during the bell stage.
  • Draw and label a picture of the bell stage.
  • Define the following terms:
  • Describe the apposition stage
  • Describe the maturation stage
  • Describe root development
  • Describe tooth eruption

Describe the stages of prenatal development.

Objectives:

  • Define the following terms:
  • List five examples of teratogens
  • Describe the problems teratogen may cause
  • Dsecribe what occurs during the preimplantation period.
  • Describe how Down's syndrome occurs.
  • List the physical characteristics of Down's syndrome and describe how oral cavity is affected.
  • Describe an ectopic pregnancy.
  • Draw and label a blastocyst.
  • Define and indicate what each area does or what it will eventually become.
  • Describe how the disc develops from a bilaminar disc to a trilaminar disc.
  • Describe the neural crests, where they originate from, where they migrate to, and what they develop into in the future.
  • Describe somites and explain how they develop.
  • Draw and describe the process of the development of the future spinal cord.
  • Identify time period for development of the future spinal cord.
  • Define notochord.
  • Describe why week 4 is a critical time period in development

Describe the development of the palate, nasal cavity, nasal septum and tongue.

Objectives:

  • Define the following terms:
  • Describe what happens during week four to the oropharyngeal membrane.
  • Describe how the mandibular arch develops.
  • Identify the time frame for development of the mandibular arch.
  • Describe the three stages of development of the palate.
  • Identify the time frame for development of the palate.
  • Draw and label the hard and soft palate.
  • Identify developmental disturbances that may occur during the development of the palate.
  • Describe the formation of the upper lip.
  • Identify timeframes for development of the tongue.
  • Identify branchial arches that form the tongue.
  • Describe the formation of the tongue.
  • Draw and label a diagram of the development of the tongue.
  • Define the following terms:

Explain morphological and histological structures of Dentin and Pulp.

Objectives:

  • Define each of the following terms:
  • Describe the embryonic origin of pulp.
  • Identify the following parts of the pulp chamber.
  • Describe the innervation and vascularization of the pulp
  • State the structural components of:
  • List the various functions of the pulp tissue
  • Explain true and false denticles.
  • Discuss the various changes that take place in the pulp tissues due to age.
  • Discuss the various diseases of the pulp tissue.

Describe the various characteristics of Enamel including the histological characteristics.

Objectives:

  • Define each of the following terms:

Describe the various histological characteristics of cementum, periodontal ligament and Alveolar Bone.

Objectives:

  • Define each of the following terms:
  • List the components of Cementum and Alveolar bone.
  • List and explain the two groups of collagen fibers in cementum and in alveolar bone.
  • Explain the development of cementum.
  • Briefly explain the development of alveolar bone.

Describe the functional and histological characteristics of salivary galands and lymphoid tissue.

Objectives:

  • Define the following terms:
  • List the major components of saliva.
  • List the major functions of saliva
  • Describe the histologic components of a salivary gland: acinus, intercalated duct,
  • Compare the location, type of secretion, and ducts (including location of openings) of the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands.
  • Discuss the functions of lymphoid tissue.
  • Describe a lymph node including the afferent vessels, capsule, cortex, medulla, sinuses and efferent vessel(s).
  • Compare the location and character of the palatine tonsils, pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids), and lingual tonsils.

Develop a plan to reduce caries based on the risk assessment.

Objectives:

  • Indentify the key factors to include in a caries risk assessment (CRA).
  • Describe high & low risks of the various factors in a CRA.
  • Implement Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) according to the patient’s risks.
  • Describe to a patient how the various products work to prevent caries.
  • Describe to a patient how saliva prevents caries.
  • Describe the process of demineralization and remineralization to a patient.
  • Describe how to test for salivary flow rate.
  • Describe the importance of testing saliva for bacteria
  • Describe the importance of utilizing fluorescence for detecting caries.

Assess and Manage oral malodor for clinic patients.

Objectives:

  • Identify various etiologies of oral malodor
  • Discuss assessments that are utilized to determine etiology of oral malodor niches involved in production of oral malodor.
  • Explain relationship between oral malodor and periodontal disease.
  • Identify a plan to manage oral malodor
  • Describe methods to discuss malodor with a patient.