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Oral Anatomy & Physiology

DA 113W

Oral Anatomy & Physiology

DA 113W

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: BIO 140W or BIO 152W and BIO 153W; any approved College Composition I; and COM 112W or COM 114W, with a "C" (2.

0) or better in in each. Concurrent enrollment in DA 106W and DA 117W. Introduces basic structures and physiology of the oral cavity, head, and neck. Includes oral histology, embryology, and pathology related to the development of the dental structure. (60-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

Identify the landmarks of the oral cavity.

Objectives:

  • Using diagrams or classmates identify the location and name the boundaries of the oral cavity and its parts.
  • Using lab models or classmates, locate the landmarks of the hard and soft palates and the structure forming each.
  • Using diagrams or classmates identify the frenum attachments of the lip.

Identify premolars and their landmarks.

Objectives:

  • Relate the shape of premolars to masticatory function.
  • Identify significant anatomical features of the premolars.
  • Compare between maxillary and mandibular premolar occlusal surfaces.
  • Compare between 1st and 2nd premolars in the same arch relative to development, shape, and anatomical form.
  • Identify, in lab models and actual, 1st and 2nd maxillary and mandibular molars.
  • Locate proximal contact areas.
  • State root length.
  • State eruption and calcification dates.

Identify molars and their landmarks.

Objectives:

  • Relate the molar shape to its masticatory function.
  • Compare the size, shape, and lobe formation between the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd molars.
  • Locate proximal contact areas.
  • State root length.
  • Identify significant anatomical features of the molars.
  • Compare maxillary molars with mandibular molars.
  • Identify, on lab models and actual teeth, the three maxillary and mandibular molars.
  • State eruption and calcification dates.

Identify primary teeth and their landmarks.

Objectives:

  • Identify the deciduous teeth by name and code notation and their function prior to permanent tooth eruption.
  • Compare differences between primary and secondary teeth relative to identification (anatomical, shape, size, root formation differences).

Recognize and describe occlusal relationships.

Objectives:

  • Relate oral muscle forces to alignment of the teeth.
  • Describe the relationship of the curves of Spee and Wilson and sphere of Monson to occlusion.
  • Describe the interrelationship existing between eruption schedule and growth to ultimate alignment and occlusion.
  • Apply the terms: overjet, overbite, crossbite, open bite, edge to edge, end to end, midline deviation, labioversion, linguoversion, supraversion, infraversion, torsiversion, transposed.
  • Identify the three classifications of occlusion.
  • Explain the three types of dysplasia.
  • State Hereditary, Systemic, and Extrinsic factors.
  • Define the following:

Identify basic embryonic structures of facial development.

Objectives:

  • Describe basic embryonic structures, which form the face and the embryonic age of formation of each structure.
  • Identify the embryonic structures forming the palate and the embryonic age of palatal formation.
  • Identify the germ layers from which the tooth parts originate and the embryonic age of tooth formation.
  • Describe the embryological disturbances that cause orofacial clefts.

Describe and identify the dental lamina, enamel organ, dental papilla and dental sac.

Objectives:

  • Describe the dental lamina and its age of appearance embryologically.
  • Describe the hud cap and bell stages and the tooth layers formed at each stage.
  • Describe the dental papillar and sac, and which stage it appears, and the tooth tissue it forms.

Explain the development of the tooth tissues.

Objectives:

  • Describe the embryological process involved in producing enamel and dentin.
  • Describe the properties and components of dentin and enamel.
  • Define primary, secondary, and reparative dentin.
  • Describe the components of the pulp and subsequent age changes of the pulp.
  • Explain the effect of a pulp stone to the integrity of the pulp.
  • Describe the anomalies and their etiologists associated with tooth formation, e.g., enamel, hypoplasia, mottled enamel, and anodontia, and Hutchinson's teeth.

Explain the development of the root.

Objectives:

  • Relate the role of the epithelial root sheath to root form.
  • Describe the formation and types of cementum.
  • Recognize the alveolar components.
  • Explain how bone reacts to pressure and tension relative to tooth movement.

Explain the stages of tooth eruption and identify deviation.

Objectives:

  • Review the eruption dates.
  • Describe the theories concerning tooth eruption and its probable cause.
  • Compare the formation and position of the permanent teeth in relation to their primary predecessors.
  • Describe the cause and effect of ankylosis.
  • Describe the process of primary tooth root resorption and subsequent exfoliation.
  • Define and explain causes of: antodontic, abrasion, attrition, atrophy, bruxism,decalcification, deposition, congenitally missing, diastema, edematous erosion, exfoliation, recession, resorption, supernumerary, mesoderm, eruption, amorphous, agenesis, and etiology

Distinguish between normal and abnormal oral mucosa.

Objectives:

  • Identify the location and formation of the two regions of gingiva or masticatory mucosa.
  • Locate the parts of the masticatory mucosa:
  • Palate, gingival sulcus, free gingiva, attached gingiva, alveolar mucosa, interdental papilla
  • Identify normal and abnormal mucosal color, contour, firmness, and stripling related to gingivitis and periodontal disease.
  • Compare the attached gingiva with alveolar mucosa relative to color and stripling.
  • Identify, on lab models and in the oral cavity, the parts of the oral and masticatory mucosa.

Distinguish between the tooth tissues in function and location.

Objectives:

  • Identify the various tissues of tooth.
  • Compare between clinical and anatomical crown, or eruption.
  • Identify the three types of root furcations and the location of each type in the dental arches.
  • Describe the tooth tissues, their function, location within a tooth, and chemical and physical composition

Identify the abnormal and normal structures of the tongue.

Objectives:

  • Describe the embryonic formation and origin of the tongue.
  • Identify major muscles of the tongue.
  • Identify the four types of papilla and the function of each.
  • Describe how changes of the tongue signify health changes.
  • Identify, in the oral cavity, the four different papilla of the tongue.

Identify and describe the salivary glands.

Objectives:

  • Identify the three major pairs of salivary glands, their locations and function.
  • Classify the type of secretion produced by the major and minor salivary gland.
  • Locate, in the oral cavity, the duct openings for the three salivary gland secretions.
  • Describe the etiologies of mucocele.

Identify and describe various abnoemal conditions of the teeth.

Objectives:

  • Define anomaly
  • Compare intrinsic and extrinsic factors
  • Distinguish between hereditary and congenital factors
  • Define: hereditary, congenital, familial tendency, macrodontia, microdontia, hyperdontia, anodontia, supernumary, mesiodes, paramolar, supplemental, conical, tubercle, odontoma, dens in dente, delacerated, dwarfed roots, gemination, fusion, concrescence, hypercementosis, cementoma, enamel pearls, hutchinson's incisors, mulberry molars, enamel dysplasia, enamel hypoplasia, enamel hypocalcification, enamel fluorosis amelogenesis imperfecta, Turner's tooth, dentinogenesis imperfecta, tetracycline staining

Identify the skull bones and their landmarks.

Objectives:

  • Identify the 22 bones comprising the skull, and their location on a skull (manikin or human).
  • Using diagrams or lab models, locate the three major bones of the skull and their significant landmarks.
  • Using diagrams or lab models, identify by names and locations the cranial openings, foramina, and canals of significance to dentistry, e.g., mental foramen, infra- orbital foramen, incisive foramen, greater palatine foramen.

Identify the TMJ and its function.

Objectives:

  • Using diagrams or models, distinguish the structures of the temporomandibular joint (T.M.J.).
  • Describe the role of the synovial cavity, capsule, T.M.J. ligament, and disc to the functioning of the T.M.J.
  • Identify probable causes of T.M.J. dysfunction and pain.

Identify and describe the muscles of mastication.

Objectives:

  • Using diagrams or lab models, locate the four muscle pairs, associated with mastication.
  • Describe origin, insertion, and action of each pair of muscles.
  • Categorize each set of masticatory muscles according to their role in elevation, depression, protrusion, and lateral excursion.

Identify the blood vessels and their paths of drainage.

Objectives:

  • Identify the two branches of the external carotid that supplies the teeth and oral cavity.
  • Identify the major vessels supplying nourishment to the teeth, tongue, and muscles of mastication.
  • Using diagrams and lab models, locate major vessels supplying blood to tongue, teeth, and muscles of mastication.
  • Describe the function of blood to body tissues.

Identify the lymph nodes and their paths of drainage.

Objectives:

  • Describe the function of the lymphatics.
  • Using diagrams and lab models, identify the two major lymph groups in the head and neck.

Identify the parts of the trigeminal nerve and its path of innervation.

Objectives:

  • Identify the branches of the trigeminal nerve and those structures each branch innervates.
  • Identify nerves involved in the sensations of the tongueRelate local anesthesia procedures to the innervation system of the teeth and adjacent structures.

Identify tooth surfaces, thirds, angles and basic landmarks.

Objectives:

  • Relate the function of each permanent tooth to its development shape and size.
  • Identify the five surfaces of anterior and of posterior teeth.
  • Divide each tooth surface into thirds and name each third.
  • Name the line and point angles of a tooth.
  • Locate basic tooth landmarks (lobes, developmental grooves, tubercle, fossa, pit, ridges, cingulum, grooves).

Distinguish between the various parts of the periodontium.

Objectives:

  • Describe the gingival unit supporting the teeth, its parts and functions.
  • Locate the attachment apparatus and relate its function to the gingival unit.
  • Describe the interrelationship between the cementum of a tooth, the periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone.
  • Identify the purpose of the fibers of the periodontal ligament.

Describe common tooth traits of shape alignment.

Objectives:

  • Relate tooth size, shape, and location to the protection of the periodontium.
  • Explain how tooth proximal contact and alignment protects the periodontium and integrity of the dentition.
  • Describe embrasures, their purpose or function in protection of periodontium.
  • Describe tooth contours and their function in protecting the periodontium.
  • Identify the C.E.J. and the difference between curvatures of anterior and posterior teeth.
  • Describe the self-cleansing characteristics and capabilities of natural teeth.

Name and code all teeth.

Objectives:

  • Differentiate between primary, secondary, and mixed dentition.
  • Identify teeth by their arrangements into dentitions, arches, and quadrants.
  • Identify each tooth by dental name and code.
  • Code each tooth using notation systems (Universal, Palmer & F.D.I.).
  • Given a tooth code in Universal notation, name each tooth.
  • Describe the effects of caries on the health of tooth enamel, dentin, and pulp.

Relate eruption dates to development of teeth.

Objectives:

  • Describe, with chronological fetal ages, the basic development of the tooth germ.
  • Describe the formation of a tooth originating from the growth center or lobes.
  • Relate the form and size of each tooth to its individual coalescence.
  • Describe the dental phenomena of mesial drift, root resorption, and exfoliation.
  • Apply the eruption tables to any given tooth.
  • Explain the significant dental problems associated with impacted teeth, and congenitally missing teeth.

Identify incisors and their landmarks.

Objectives:

  • Relate the shape of the incisors to masticatory function.
  • Identify significant anatomical features of all aspects of incisors
  • Compare maxillary lateral and central incisors relative to shape, size, and location.
  • Compare maxillary and mandibular incisor counterparts relative to size, shape, and location.
  • Identify actual and tooth models of lateral and central incisors.
  • Locate proximal contact areas.
  • State root length.
  • State eruption and calcification dates.

Identify canines and their landmarks.

Objectives:

  • Relate the shape of the canine to its masticatory function.
  • Recognize anatomical similarities and differences of the canine to anterior and posterior teeth.
  • Identify significant anatomical features of the canines.
  • Identify actual and tooth models of canine.
  • Locate proximal contact areas.
  • State root length.
  • State eruption and calcification dates.