Organic Chemistry ICHM 210
Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 2 and WRITING LEVEL 2 and MATH LEVEL 5, and completion of CHM 111 or CHM 112 with a grade of "C" or better.
Provides the basic principles of organic chemistry, including functional groups, nomenclature, mechanisms, reaction types and various reagents. Meets the needs of students in the medical and health fields, engineering fields, and science majors. (60-0)
Outcomes and Objectives
- Demonstrate understanding by reading, speaking, and writing.
- Employ critical writing and active listening to obtain or convey information.
- Collect and analyze data.
- Identify trends, solve problems, and conclude logically by integrating concepts.lusions.
Demonstrate understanding of fundamental concepts of bonding and molecular structure
- Describe atoms in terms of atomic structure, orbital electrons configurations and chemical bonding theory.
- Explain the basic principles of ionic and covalent bonding.
- Describe the relationship of acids, bases, electrophiles and nucleophiles to the reactivity of organic molecules.
- Draw and explain resonance structures and formal changes of organic molecules and dipole moments of covalent bonds.
- Predict the formation of polar bonds and polar molecules based on electronegativity.
- Use the concept of orbital hybridization to describe bonding in organic molecules.
Demonstrate the understanding of basic structures and properties of organic molecules.
- Recognize and identify the common organic functional groups and their elemental components.
- Use line bonds diagrams to explain chemical structures.
- Determine the degrees of unsaturation of a molecule.
- Describe the stability, bonding structure and physical properties of alkane, alkene, alkyne, alkyl halides and organometallic compounds.
- Explain the stability of aromatic systems using resonance, the importance of aromaticity, and anti-aromatic and non-aromatic compounds.
Apply the fundamental rules of nomenclature.
- Name and draw the homologous series of alkanes and alkyl groups for the first twelve carbons in the series (C1 through to C12).
- Use the rules to name and draw cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alkyl halides, substituted benzenes, aromatic and organometallic compounds.
Demonstrate an understanding of alkane and cycloalkane conformers.
- Draw staggered and eclipsed conformers of various alkanes to illustrate their stability
- Explain steric and torsional strain of different alkane and cycloalkane conformations.
- Draw and identify the axial and equatorial bonds in various cycloalkanes.
- Explain the conformational mobility of cyclohexane and its substituted derivatives that produces chair conformers from ring flipping
Demonstrate an understanding of the important concepts of stereochemistry.
- Explain chiral and achiral molecules, enantiomers and racemates.
- Explain optical activity dextrorotatory, levorotatory, specific rotation and plane polarized light.
- Draw and name isomers from a given chemical formula.
- Classify and draw E and Z stereoisomers of alkenes.
- Classify and draw cis and trans stereoisomers of cycloalkanes.
- Classify and draw the configuration of enantiomers either in line-bond structures or Fischer projections.
- Explain diastereomers, constitutional isomers, stereoisomers and meso-compounds.
Demonstrate and understanding of the major organic reactions and recognize their characteristics.
- Describe and identify the major reactions: rearrangement, addition, substitution and elimination reactions.
- Describe a chemical reaction in terms of energy diagrams, transition states, bond dissociation energies, rates and equilibria, homogenic and heterogenic reactions, bond breaking and bond making processes.
- Use mechanisms to explain the electrophilic addition reactions and syntheses of alkenes and identify the reagents used in these transformations. Explain Markovnikov’s rule and the stability of carbocation intermediates in these reactions.
- Use mechanisms to explain the major reactions and syntheses of alkynes and identify the reagents used in these transformations.
- Use the SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 mechanisms to explain the major reactions and syntheses of alkyl halides. Identify the nucleophiles and bases reagents used in these reactions.
- Identify the reagents used to synthesize organometallic compounds from alkyl halides.
- Identify the reagents and electrophilic aromatic substitution mechanisms that benzene and its derivatives undergo.
Demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental principles of mass spectrometry and Infra-Red (IR) spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
- Discuss the fundamental principles of mass spectrometry in determining the size, mass and molecular formula.
- Analyze and interpret mass spectra to identify the structures of organic molecules from molecular ion peaks and common fragmentation patterns.
- Discuss the fundamental principles of infra-red spectroscopy in determining the characteristic bond stretches and functional groups.
- Analyze and interpret IR spectra to identify functional groups present in organic molecules from bond stretches at specific frequencies.
- Describe the electromagnetic spectrum and its major components including γ-rays, x-rays, ultra-violet, infrared, microwave and radio wave regions. Explain the relationship between electromagnetic energy, quanta, frequency, wavelength, wavenumber and the speed of light.
- Discuss the fundamental principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR) spectroscopy in determining the carbon-hydrogen framework.
- Analyze and interpret NMR spectra to identify the carbon framework and functional groups present in organic molecules.
- Discuss the importance of chemical shifts and describe spin-spin splitting in 1H NMR spectra leading to d (doublet), t (triplet) and quartet (q) peaks using the N+1 rule.
- Describe the major characteristics of 13CNMR spectroscopy including chemical shift correlations, DEPT and APT methods.