General and Inorganic Chemistry ICHM 111
Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 2 and WRITING LEVEL 2 and MATH LEVEL 5 and either high school chemistry or CHM 101 with a minimum grade of C (2.
0). Emphasizes an in- depth study of the theories and principles of atomic structure bonding, stoichiometry, states of matters, and properties of solutions. Required for students who intend to enroll for more than one year of chemistry. Meets the needs of chemistry majors. Credit may be earned in CHM 111 or CHM 111H but not both. (60-45)
Outcomes and Objectives
Manipulate fundamental principles and terminology in the study of matter and its changes.
- Define physical properties of matter and give examples.
- Identify the states of matter and give examples.
- Explain the changes between states using Kinetic Molecular Theory.
- Comprehend the relationship and convert between density, volume, mass, and specific gravity.
- Describe the terms atom, element, molecule, compound, mixture and their interrelationships.
- Describe and differentiate between physical and chemical properties. Match elemental symbols to properly spelled names of the elements.
Understand basic concepts of energy in chemical reactions.
- Describe the difference between potential and kinetic energy, and between heat energy and temperature.
- Calculate kinetic energy for an object whose mass and velocity are given or the converse.
- escribe how to perform and calculate information from calorimetry experiments.
- Recognize the terminology exothermic, endothermic, system, surroundings, and enthalpy.
- Interconvert the units of calories and joules.
- Comprehend the basis of the first law of thermodynamics.
Understand atomic structure.
- Recognize and manipulate the symbols and equations for wavelength, frequency, wave amplitude, and node.
- Recognize and apply the Rydberg equation, Planck's equation.
- Perform appropriate calculations using the Bohr equation.
- Describe the probability of finding an electron in the region described by a wave equation as an orbital.
- Discuss the implications of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
- escribe the allowed energy states of an electron in an atom using the quantum numbers n, l, ml, and ms.
Understand electronic structure of elements and its relationship to chemical periodicity.
- Classify substances as either paramagnetic or diamagnetic.
- Comprehend that no orbital can be assigned more than 2 electrons and that the two electrons in an orbital must have opposite spins.
- Indicate the proper placement of electrons in an atom using electron configuration and orbital diagrams.
- Predict the trends in atomic size, electronegativity, ionization energy, and electron affinity down a group or across a period of the periodic table.
Understand fundamental concepts of bonding and molecular structure.
- Determine the number of valence electrons for a given element from the periodic table.
- Define the difference between ionic and covalent bonding.
- Predict whether two elements will form an ionic or covalent bond based on their positions on the periodic table or the difference in their electronegativity.
- Describe the importance of lattice energy in the formation of ionic bonds.
- Draw Lewis Electron Dot Structures for compounds, including compounds that do not obey the octet role.
- Explain the difference between oxidation numbers and formal charges.
- Assign a formal charge to each atom in a Lewis Electron Dot Structure and use the charges to determine the best structure from several possibilities.
- Draw and explain resonance structures and resonance hybrids for Lewis Electron Dot Structures.
- Predict trends in bond length and bond dissociation energy based on bond order.
- Predict the formation of polar bonds and polar molecules based on electronegativity.
- Describe the 5 basic molecular shapes and predict the shape or geometry of a molecule or ion using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory.
- Describe the main components of valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory.
- Describe and identify bonds in a molecule according to valence bond theory.
- Use the concept of orbital hybridization to describe bonding in a molecule.
Understand behavior of gases.
- Describe the variables P, V, n, and T and their relationships in the behavior of gases.
- Explain the concept of and know the conditions of standard temperature and pressure.
- Explain the Kinetic Molecular Theory and how it describes the gas laws.
- Use the individual and combined gas laws to solve problems.
- Implement Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure in calculations.
- State the ideal gas law and how to apply it.
- Describe the phenomena of effusion and diffusion and demonstrate how to use Graham's Law.
- Explain when gases do not behave as ideal gases and know when to apply the Van der Waal Equation of State for Real Gases.
Understand behavior of liquids and solids.
- Describe the different intermolecular interactions in liquids and solids and predict which will occur based on molecular structure.
- Explain the processes of evaporation and condensation of a liquid or its vapor and use the enthalpy of vaporization in calculations.
- Explain the process of melting and freezing of a solid or its liquid and use the enthalpy of fusion in calculations
- Define and use the concept of equilibrium vapor pressure and dynamic equilibrium.
- Describe the concepts of normal boiling point, normal freezing point, critical temperature, critical pressure, and the triple point and identify all of these areas on a phase diagram.
- Describe the type of intermolecular forces in a substance and explain how they affect the physical properties of that substance.
Understand and apply proper measurement techniques and manipulations of measured numbers.
- Manipulate units of English, Metric, and SI systems, and interconvert them.
- Use dimensional analysis to carry out unit conversions and other calculations.
- Explain the difference between precision and accuracy and demonstrate proper use of significant digits in calculations.
- Demonstrate use of the F, C, and K scales and convert temperatures from one scale to another.
Demonstrate an understanding of the organization and information contained in the periodic table.
- Summarize trends and predict elemental behavior based on the element's position in the periodic table.
- Identify the difference between the atomic number and atomic mass from information contained in the periodic table.
- Identify the location of groups, periods, and series.
- Use the periodic table to predict properties of elements and the formation of ions.
Describe and explain the accepted theory of atomic structure.
- Describe electrons, protons, neutrons, and the general structure of the atom.
- Define isotope and give the mass number, number of neutrons, and number of electrons for a specific isotope.
- Calculate the atomic mass of an element from isotopic abundances and calculate the abundance if given the isotopic masses and average mass.
Understand the basic characteristics of compounds and their formation.
- Describe the difference between cations and anions and how they are formed.
- Comprehend the difference between structural and molecular formulas.
- Categorize ionic, covalent, and coordinate covalent bonds.
- Explain the differences in the properties of ionic and molecular compounds.
Converse and read fluently in the language of chemistry.
- Name and write correct formulas for ionic and molecular compounds, including acids and bases.
- Associate the names of common polyatomic ions with their formulas.
Apply the basic concepts of molar calculations.
- Calculate the molar mass of a compound.
- Calculate the number of moles of an element or a compound from a given mass and the converse.
- Determine the % composition of elements compounds.
- Determine empirical and molecular formulas of a compound.
Explain the principles of chemical reactions.
- Complete and balance single replacement, double replacement, and oxidation-reduction equations using proper subscripts.
- Identify the oxidizing and reducing agents in an oxidation-reduction reaction.
- Predict the solubility of ionic and non-ionic compounds in water.
- Explain the difference between an electrolyte and non-electrolyte.
- Predict what species will form when a compound dissolves in water.
- Write and balance molecular, ionic, and net-ionic equations for an indicated reaction.
- Determine the oxidation numbers for all elements or for each atom in a compound.
- List the 7 strong acids and identify strong bases by formula.
Use the principles of stoichiometry.
- Calculate the mass or moles of a reactant or product from the mass or moles of another reactant or product using a balanced chemical equation.
- Determine which of two reactants is the limiting reactant.
- Calculate and explain the differences between actual yield, theoretical yield, and percent yield.
- Explain and calculate molarity.
- Prepare solutions of a known concentration through serial dilution.
- Solve the stoichiometric problems using solution concentrations.
- Explain how to carry out a titration and prepare a standard solution.