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Technical Chemistry II

CHM 106W

Technical Chemistry II

CHM 106W

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 2 and WRITING LEVEL 2 and MATH LEVEL 3, and completion of CHM 101 or CHM 105 with a minimum grade of C (2.

0). Provides inorganic and organic chemistry knowledge and technical skills' foundation essential for employment as a technician in a variety of chemistry-based professions. Includes analytical instrumentation use. (60-60)

Outcomes and Objectives

Regain familiarity with general chemistry concepts needed for understanding of introductory organic chemistry.

Objectives:

  • Understand atomic structure including subatomic particles and electron configuration
  • Use electronegativity to predict the nature of bonds as either covalent or ionic and be able to represent with appropriate Lewis Dot structures
  • Recognize the common notations for isotopes
  • Understand atomic mass and the relationship to molar mass
  • Recognize the relationship between empirical and molecular formulas
  • Differentiate between acids and bases in accordance with the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis theories
  • Understand oxidation, reduction, oxidizing agent, reducing agent
  • Understand occurrence and significance of hydrogen bonding

Understanding of the relationship between structure and function of amino acids, polypeptides and proteins.

Objectives:

  • Recognize foods that are major sources of protein
  • List the elements usually contained in protein molecules
  • Recognize the names of the amino acids and be able to use a reference to determine their structure; identify the functional groups present
  • Predict the structure of a peptide linkage between two amino acids
  • Differentiate between primary and secondary structure of a protein
  • Discuss the role of enzymes in biodegradation

Work independently to locate chemical information and analyze data effectively.

Objectives:

  • Use reference books to locate physical and chemical properties as well as safety information.
  • Use internet search engines to locate chemical information above and also vendor information, career opportunities, and opinions on social issues regarding chemicals.
  • Evaluate the credibility of information retrieved from the internet
  • Understand the implementation of risk assessment
  • Determine the information required to make a chemical decision
  • Make decisions based on data and observations
  • Pay close attention to detail and observe trends
  • Have a general understanding of the considerations in choosing a chemical container (sampling size or industrial)
  • Utilize appropriate sampling techniques
  • Understand the concept of calibrating an instrument against a standard
  • Use chemical principles to explain observed phenomena
  • Follow a standard operating procedure

Perform writing tasks to promote learning.

Write effectively for a specific audience and purpose.

Demonstrate the learning of concepts through writing.

Understand the structure, nomenclature and some reactions of saturated hydrocarbons.

Objectives:

  • Describe the tetrahedral nature of the carbon atom
  • Explain the role of hybridization in formation of single bonds around the carbon atom
  • Express alkanes and halogenated alkanes as Lewis structures
  • Know the IUPAC names and formulas for the C1-C10 alkanes
  • Become familiar with both natural sources and commercial uses of alkanes
  • Understand isomerization
  • Recognize the utility of structural formulas, condensed formulas, Lewis structures, ball and stick models and space-filling models
  • Write structural formulas and IUPAC names for the isomers of an alkane or halogenated alkane
  • Learn common names for short chain branched alkanes
  • Give the IUPAC name of a hydrocarbon or a halogenated hydrocarbon when given the structural formula
  • Give the structural formula of a hydrocarbon or a halogenated hydrocarbon when given the IUPAC name
  • Write equation for the halogenation of an alkane including all possible mono-substituted product isomers
  • Write structure formulas and names for cycloalkanes C3-C6.
  • Understand the two conformations for cyclohexane.
  • Understand the derivation and utility of the octane number system
  • Understand and be able to use the following terms: acyclic, alkane, alkyl group, axial position, CFCs, catalytic cracking, conformational isomer, cycloalkane, equatorial, functional group, halide, halogenated, homologous series, hydrocarbon, isomer, isomerism, monosubstitution, paraffin, petrochemical, saturated, sigma bond, unsaturated

Understand the structure, nomenclature and some reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Objectives:

  • Explain the sp2 and sp hybridization of carbon atoms and the formation of a pi bond, double and triple bonds
  • Distinguish, by formulas, the difference between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons
  • Name and write structural formulas of alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkenes, and aromatic compounds
  • Determine from structural formulas whether a compound can exist as geometric isomers
  • Correctly use the terms "cis" and "trans" to describe isomers
  • Write equations representing addition reactions of alkenes and alkynes
  • Explain the formation of carbocations and their role in chemical reactions
  • Understand Markovnikov's rule for addition of HCl, HBr, HI, and H+/H2O to alkenes and alkynes
  • Recognize the results of the Baeyer test for unsaturation
  • Explain simple chemical tests that can be used to differentiate between alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes
  • Compare benzene structure and properties to cyclohexane
  • Relate IUPAC names for substituted benzene compounds to structural formulas
  • Write equations for the following reactions of benzene compounds
  • Halogenation with chlorine or bromine
  • Nitration
  • Friedel-Crafts Alkylation
  • Oxidation of side chains
  • Understand and be able to use the following terms: alkene, alkyne, aromatic compound, geometric isomer, cycloalkene, cracking, pyrolysis, dehydration, addition reaction, carbocation, Markovnikov's rule

Have an understanding of the structure, nomenclature and some reactions of alcohols, ethers, phenols and thiols.

Objectives:

  • Name alcohols, ethers, phenols and thiols by common and IUPAC methods
  • Write the structural formula for the above when given the name
  • Recognize and identify primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols.
  • Understand the common sources, means of preparation, uses and hazards for common alcohols, ethers, phenols and thiols

Have an understanding of the structure, nomenclature and some reactions of aldehydes and ketones.

Objectives:

  • Recognize the aldehyde and ketone functional groups within a molecule
  • Name aldehydes and ketones by common and IUPAC methods
  • Write formulas of aldehydes and ketones when given their names
  • Write equations showing the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones

Understand the structure, nomenclature and some reactions of carboxylic acids and esters.

Objectives:

  • Give the common and IUPAC names of selected carboxylic acids
  • Write the structural formulas for saturated, unsaturated, aromatic and dicarboxylic carboxylic acids
  • Understand correlation between molecular mass and the properties of solubility in water and boiling point
  • Write equations for the preparation of carboxylic acids by:
  • Oxidation of alcohols and aldehydes
  • Hydrolysis of esters
  • Saponification of fats
  • Oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Write equations for the reactions of carboxylic acids to form salts and esters
  • Write common names, IUPAC names and formulas of esters
  • Identify the portion of an ester that is derived from a carboxylic acid and the portion derived from an alcohol
  • Compare and contrast the cleansing action of a soap and synthetic detergent
  • Recognize differences in the composition of natural fats and oils and the effect on the properties of the triacylglycerols (triglycerides, fats).
  • Differentiate between: fat and oil; salt of a carboxylic acid and a soap; hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, hydrolysis and saponification; cationic, anionic and nonionic surfactants,

Have an appreciation for the utility of polymers and an understanding of the relationship between structure and function.

Objectives:

  • Recognize naturally occurring polymers including fibers
  • Be able to represent polymers in terms of their repeating units
  • Write formulas for condensation polymers, given the monomer
  • Identify polymers from their tradenames using standard reference materials
  • Recognize characteristics of common polymeric materials and thereby classify the polymer into major categories such as polyethylene, polystyrene, polyurethane, silicone polymer, PET, etc.
  • Demonstrate understanding of the functional characteristics of common polymers
  • Understand the difference between addition and condensation polymers
  • Understand thermoset vs. thermoplastic resins
  • Differentiate between a polymeric fiber, resin and film.
  • Understand the role of polymer additives
  • Recognize the role of polymer properties in determining recycling capability

Understand of the relationship between structure and function of amide and amine compounds.

Objectives:

  • Recognize the amide functional group
  • Use IUPAC nomenclature system for amides
  • Predict hydrolysis products of amides in acid and base solutions
  • Recognize the amine functional group
  • Recognize heterocyclic compounds and be able to name using reference information
  • Appreciate the uses of urea and the alkaloid group of pharmaceuticals.

Understand of the relationship between structure and function of carbohydrates and lipids.

Objectives:

  • Recognize optical isomers
  • Classify carbohydrates as monosaccharide, disaccharide, oligosaccharide and polysaccharide
  • Differentiate between glucose and fructose
  • Describe hydrolysis of disaccharides
  • Recognize the significance of sugars and sugar substitutes
  • Discuss the utility of polysaccharides (polymers) starch and cellulose
  • Recognize the classification of lipids as being simple lipids, compound lipids, steroids or fat-soluble vitamins