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Technical Chemistry I

CHM 105W

Technical Chemistry I

CHM 105W

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 2 and WRITING LEVEL 2 and MATH LEVEL 3.

Provides basic principles of general chemistry with an emphasis on resource-based and hands-on learning. Includes chemical and physical properties of matter, measurement and chemical calculations, chemical terminology, reactions and processes, and use of industrial and field testing equipment. Integrates computer skills into the course including word processing, spreadsheet, email, and web use. (60-60)

Outcomes and Objectives

Identify the scope of chemical study and implications of industrial and environmental studies

Objectives:

  • Identify the major groups of chemicals manufactured in the US.
  • Classify matter by physical state and identify the processes by which matter changes physical state.
  • Use a reference source on properties of substances to classify sample substances as to state at a given temperature.
  • Discuss typical processes for separation of mixtures: sieves, filtration, distillation.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of chemical language:
  • Distinguish between physical change and chemical properties and changes and classify examples.
  • Define the following physical properties: density, viscosity, specific gravity, solubility.
  • Classify top 50 chemicals produced as elements or compounds, inorganic or organic.
  • Demonstrate safe laboratory procedures; recognize common laboratory hazards.
  • Explain terms used on a Material Safety Data Sheet including oxidizer, corrosive, reactivity, hygroscopic, sensitizer.
  • Define and use the terms: atom, atomic (elemental) symbol, boiling point, chemical equation, chemical formula, chemical properties, chemistry, compound, condensation, crystalline solid, element, endothermic reaction, evaporation, exothermic reaction, freezing, fusing, gas, kinetic energy, melting, Law of Conservation of Energy, Law of Conservation of Mass, liquid, matter, mixture, particulate, phase, physical properties, potential energy, precipitate, product, pure substance, reactant, solid, sublimation, vaporization.
  • Develop computer skills necessary to open files, read Word files, and cut and paste between files.

Practice general education abilities within the context of course.

Objectives:

  • Write accurate lab reports reflecting data collected
  • Analyze data and draw appropriate conclusions
  • Report results of work to class orally
  • Evaluate validity of internet source materials
  • Demonstrate teamwork skills both in small class groups and while working in lab groups.
  • Use computers effectively to retrieve information from files, create word-processed documents, create basic spreadsheets including graphs, retrieve information from the Internet, and utilize email including attachments.

Perform writing tasks to promote learning.

Write effectively for a specific audience and purpose.

Demonstrate the learning of concepts through writing.

Demonstrate knowledge of measuring techniques and conversion of units in and between SI and English systems of measurement.

Objectives:

  • Use a calculator for addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, including use of exponents.
  • Differentiate between accuracy and precision and read measuring devices with linear or dial analog scale (ruler, refractometer), volume (graduate, burette), and digital scale.
  • Discuss the usefulness of scientific notation and demonstrate the correct use of scientific notation.
  • Discuss the need for significant figures.
  • Apply rounding conventions to measured numbers.
  • Read temperatures on Fahrenheit and Celsius scales and convert between °F and °C.
  • Use unit conversion method (dimensional analysis) to convert between measurement units.
  • Use metric base units and prefixes.
  • Locate sources of conversion information.
  • Use density to convert between mass and volume.
  • Calculate specific gravities for liquids and gases.
  • Calculate volumes of solids with regular dimensions.a. rectangular solid (storage bin, tote); cylindrical solid (tank, pipe, drum);b. sphere (tank)
  • Discuss the use of tare weights; describe the difference between contained and delivered mass.
  • Calculate volumes of pipes and tanks from dimensions and convert to gallons, liters.
  • Manually graph linear data on x and y axis and read data from the graph.
  • Enter linear data on an Excel spreadsheet, graph data and read data from graph.
  • Define and use the terms: base unit, conversion factor, density, dimensional analysis, exact number, exponent, mass, scientific notation, significant figure (digit), uncertainty, weight.

Demonstrate knowledge of the basic concepts of atomic structure, and relate them to the Periodic Table, electron configuration, formation of ions, and use and relevance of radioactive isotopes.

Objectives:

  • Discuss the historical development of subatomic particles.
  • Distinguish between and determine atomic number, atomic mass, mass number.
  • Calculate average atomic mass of an element from the isotope distribution.
  • For the following categories of elements: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, oxygen group, halogens, noble gases, transition metals, metalloids, rare earth metals:
  • Identify types of radioactive decay (alpha, beta, gamma) and write equations to express alpha and beta decay.
  • Discuss the difference between fission and fusion.
  • Describe the relationship between the electromagnetic spectrum and electron energy level changes.
  • Write electron configurations and discuss their relevance to periodic table.
  • Determine valence electrons and write appropriate Lewis Dot structures for elements.
  • Predict trends in properties from the periodic table.
  • Define and apply the terms: anion, cation, chemical family, electron configuration, excited state, ground state, ion, ionization energy, isoelectronic, Lewis dot symbols, metal, nonmetal, octet rule, orbital, Pauli exclusion principle, photon, principal energy level, quantized energy levels, semimetal, spectrum, sublevels s, p, d, f, valence electrons

Demonstrate an understanding of the similarities and differences between ionic and covalent bonds as well as polarity within bonds and molecules.

Objectives:

  • Predict ionic charge for monatomic ions.
  • Write formulas for ionic compounds.
  • Describe the transfer of electrons to form ions when a metal and a nonmetal react.
  • Describe the concept of sharing of electrons to form a covalent bond when two nonmetals react.
  • Use electronegativities to distinguish between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds.
  • Describe ionic attraction and lattice structure characteristics.
  • Describe the difference between polar bonds and polar molecules, and show how polarity of bonds affects solubility.
  • Use Periodic Table to predict bond character: ionic, polar covalent, nonpolar.
  • Describe the difference between single, double and triple bonds (multiple bonds).
  • Identify exceptions to the octet rule.
  • Describe metallic bonds.
  • Recognize common alloys.
  • Define and use the terms: alloy, anion, bond, bond dissociation energy, bonding pair of electrons, cation, chemical bond, covalent bond, covalent compound, dipole, double bond, electronegativity, ionic bond, lattice structure, lone pair of electrons, molecular compound, molecule, monatomic ion, multiple bond, nonbonding pair of electrons, nonpolar covalent bond, octet rule, polar covalent bond, polar bond, polyatomic ion, single bond, triple bond.

Cross-reference chemicals by name, formula, common name, trade name and CAS number.

Objectives:

  • Discuss the need for learning chemical nomenclature.
  • Use appropriate molecular formula for elements that occur as diatomic molecules.
  • Correctly name and write formulas for compounds made from two nonmetals.
  • Correctly name and write symbols for monatomic ions with single or multiple charges including use of Stock naming convention to indicate charge on transition metal ions.
  • Correctly name and write symbols for acid compounds including: nitric acid, chloric acid, bromic acid, iodic acid, manganic acid, carbonic acid, sulfuric acid, chromic acid, and phosphoric acid.
  • Write formulas for compounds containing the ions: ammonium ion, hydroxide ion, cyanide ion, acetate ion, oxalate ion, chromate ion, dichromate ion
  • Correctly name and write symbols for ternary salts and hydrates.
  • Discuss use of common names.
  • Use a hard-copy reference as well as the Internet to cross-reference compounds by:
  • Define and use the terms: acid, anhydrous compound, anion, binary ionic compound, binary molecular compound, cation, diatomic molecule, hydrate, hydrated, ion, ionize, monatomic ion, oxyacid, oxyanion.

Recognize the types of chemical reactions, and write and interpretchemical equations.

Objectives:

  • Write and balance simple chemical equations.
  • Given a balanced chemical equation, describe its meaning on the particular, molar, and macroscopic level.
  • Classify chemical reactions as one or more of the following: combination or synthesis, combustion, decomposition, single or double replacement, neutralization.
  • Predict solubility of compounds in a reaction from a table.
  • Define and use the terms: aqueous solution, balanced equation, combination reaction, combustion reaction, decomposition reaction, double replacement reaction, neutralization reaction, precipitation reaction, single replacement reaction, synthesis reaction.

Distinguish between the types of chemical processes, using material balancing, a factors affecting a reaction.

Objectives:

  • Determine the number of atoms of each element in a formula.
  • Calculate the molecular mass and formula mass in atomic mass units (amu).
  • Describe the concept of the mole and calculate molar mass in grams.
  • Convert between mass, moles, and number of particles.
  • Calculate percent composition for the elements in a compound.
  • Use molar mass and the coefficients of balanced equations to predict quantities of reactants and products.
  • Use molecular weights and stoichiometric relationships to perform calculations to predict quantities of chemicals to be reacted/produced.
  • Given the expected (calculated, theoretical) yield, calculate the percent yield for a reaction.
  • Identify limiting reactant situations and predict the theoretical amount of product, and amount of remaining excess reactant.
  • Convert between the following units of energy: calorie, joule, kilocalorie, kilojoules.
  • Calculate heat energy as a reactant or product.
  • Discuss factors that may limit the reactions (mass of reactant, product, vessel size, time, mixing capability).
  • Discuss factors that may influence and how they influence the reaction rate: temperature, pressure, concentration, surface area.
  • Discuss the role of catalysts in affecting the rate of reaction.
  • Discuss the characteristics of a chemical system in an equilibrium state.
  • Identify conditions that affect the rate of a chemical reaction: temperature, catalyst, concentration.
  • Apply Le Chatelier's Principle: concentration, volume, and temperature effects.
  • Identify examples of catalysts used in industrial processes, and describe the implications of poisoning the catalyst.
  • Describe the role of equilibrium in controlling a chemical process.
  • Discuss shifting equilibrium by removing product from the reaction mix
  • Discuss water treatment reactions: ion-exchange resins / demineralizers.
  • Define and use the terms: adsorption, balanced equation, catalyst, chemical equation, chemical reaction, distillation, endothermic reaction, equilibrium, equilibrium point, equilibrium reaction, exothermic reaction, limiting factor, material balancing, poisoned catalyst, process, process variable, product, raw material, reactants, reaction rate, reactor.

Explain the expressions for concentration of solutions and the physical and chemical properties of common acids and bases.

Objectives:

  • Define the properties of a solution.
  • Use the terminology associated with solutions.
  • Discuss factors that affect solubility.
  • Calculate and use percent by mass concentration as a conversion factor.
  • Calculate and use parts per million (and billion) as a conversion factor.
  • Express solution concentration in molarity and use molarity as a conversion factor.
  • Calculate the desired quantity of a concentrated solution to use to make known quantity of a dilute solution.
  • Perform the calculations associated with a titration.
  • Review structure of acids, bases, salts.
  • Discuss the concept of a pH scale and interpret a pH as being acidic or basic.
  • Calculate pH or pOH from molarity of an acid or base and molarity of an acid or base from pH of pOH.
  • Identify physical properties, uses and hazards of common acids and bases.
  • Describe the formations of acids from nonmetal oxides and the formation of bases from metal oxides.
  • Describe the industrial purification of salts by crystallization.
  • Use an acid/base indicator to indicate pH.
  • Use pH meter to measure common substances.
  • Perform an acid/base neutralization reaction using an indicator.
  • Perform the same neutralization reaction using a pH meter and graph the pH vs. milliliters of titrant.
  • Define and use the terms: concentrated, dilute, immiscible, indicator, miscible, pH, pOH, saturated, solute, solubility, solvent, supersaturated, titrant, titration, unsaturated.

Describe implications of intermolecular forces on physical properties as well as the utilization of physical methods for process optimization.

Objectives:

  • Explain the meaning of: calorie, Calorie (large calorie), BTU, bar, mm Hg, atm
  • Describe the separation concepts for the following purification techniques:
  • Identify states of matter.
  • Discuss properties of solids.
  • Define crystalline vs. amorphous.
  • Distinguish between metals and nonmetals
  • Discuss properties of liquids.
  • Define and use the terms: latent heat, sensible heat, absorption, adsorption, leaching, extracting solvent, carrier solvent, vapor pressure, upper cut point, lower cut point, refluxing, reboiling.