General Chemistry ICHM 101W
Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 2 and WRITING LEVEL 2 and MATH LEVEL 4.
Provides fundamental principles, including atomic theory, periodic properties, states of matter, laws of chemistry combination, nomenclature, and chemical phenomena of interest to daily living. Designed as a preparation to CHM 111 for those students with no previous work in chemistry and to satisfy a science requirement in certain curricula. (75-30)
Outcomes and Objectives
Learn fundamental chemical vocabulary and to classify matter into categories based on an understanding of chemical and physical properties. Students will be introduced to safety requirements in a chemical laboratory.
- Classify matter by physical state
- State the shape and volume characteristics of the three physical states
- Understand the application of the scientific method
- Based on experimental data, differentiate between elements and compounds
- Classify common substances as mixture or pure substance
- Distinguish between physical change and chemical change and classify examples
- Distinguish between physical and chemical properties and classify examples
- Differentiate between metals and nonmetals
- Differentiate between the symbol for an element and a compound
- Use a reference source on properties of substances to classify a sample substance
- Define and be able to use the following terms: chemistry, matter, solid, liquid, gas, melting, freezing, fusing, evaporation, vaporization, condensation, boiling point, sublimation, pure substance, mixture, physical change, chemical change, chemical reaction, precipitate, physical properties, chemical properties, element, compound, metal, nonmetal, law of definite composition, atomic symbols, chemical formula, chemical equation, atom, molecule, reactant, product, diatomic
- Understand and begin to utilize safe laboratory procedures
- Recognize common laboratory hazards
Perform calculations relating the quantities of chemical reactants and products and indicate excess reactants.
- Interpret a balanced equation to represent the mole ratio of reactants and products
- Construct conversion factors based on the mole ratio from a balanced chemical equation
- Use mole ratio conversion factors to predict
- Given quantities of two reactants, determine the limiting reagent and the reactant in excess
- Use the limiting reagent to predict the quantity of product
- In the laboratory, react two soluble ionic compounds which are known to react to produce a precipitate; choose quantities of reactants so that one is in excess. Predict the mass of a precipitate formed during the reaction. Isolate the precipitate by filtration and dry the precipitate. Determine the mass of the precipitate formed and calculate the % yield compared to the theoretical yield.
- Differentiate between endothermic and exothermic reactions
- Construct conversion factors for heat/mole of a given reactant or product
- Use heat/mole conversion factors to calculate quantity of heat as a function of mass of material reacting
- Define and be able to use the following terms: mole ratio, limiting reactant (limiting reagent), theoretical yield, actual yield, percentage yield, endothermic reaction, exothermic reaction
Understand the effects of temperature and pressure on the volume of a gas and the relationship for moles of any gas at standard temperature and pressure.
- Convert between temperatures expressed in Celsius and Kelvin
- Convert between pressure expressed in atmospheres, torr, mm Hg
- Observe the relationship between volume and pressure for a gas
- State Boyle's Law and express mathematically
- Given a change of pressure, calculate the change of volume and the reverse
- Recognize the significance of the partial pressure of water vapor in measuring the pressure of a gas collected by displacement of water
- Observe the relationship between temperature and volume for a gas
- State Charle's Law and express mathematically
- Given a change of temperature, calculate the change of volume and the reverse
- Combine application of Boyle's Law and Charle's Law; use Combined Gas Law
- Use the Ideal Gas Law to solve for pressure, volume, number of moles, or temperature
- Recognize Avogadro's Law and understand that at any given temperature and pressure, there are an equal number of moles of any gas in an equal volume
- Recognize that at standard temperature and pressure (273 kelvin, 760 mm Hg), 1 mole of a gas has a volume of 22.4 L
- Use the density relationship to calculate molar mass (g/mole) using the Ideal Gas Law
- Use molar mass and the Ideal Gas Law to calculate density of a gas at a given temperature and pressure
- Given a balanced chemical equation, the mass of one reactant or product, and the T and P of a gaseous reactant or product, calculate the volume of the gaseous reactant or product.
- Given a balanced chemical equation, the volume of a gaseous reactant or product and a given T and P, calculate the mass of another reactant or product
- Understand the applications of Kinetic Molecular Theory to gases
- Recognize the relationship of the Kinetic Molecular Theory to Boyle's Law, Charle's Law, and Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
- Define and be able to use the following terms: atmosphere, torr, partial pressure, standard temperature, standard pressure, molar gas volume, universal gas constant, ideal gases
- Recognize the difference between an Ideal Gas and a real gas.
Understand the relationship between energy changes and changes of state as well as perform appropriate calculations.
- Given the heat of fusion, calculate the heat required/liberated for a given mass of material to melt or freeze
- Given the heat of vaporization, calculate the heat required/liberated for a given mass of material to evaporate/condense
- Given appropriate specific heats and the heats of fusion and vaporization, calculate the heat required for a specified mass of a substance to undergo a particular temperature change
Express concentration of solution by various methods and use units of concentration to calculate quantities of solute.
- Define solute and solvent
- Define and be able to use the following terms: soluble, insoluble, solubility, saturated, unsaturated, dilute, concentrated, miscible, immiscible, concentration, molarity
- Express concentration of a solution as a % (m/m)
- Given a %(m/m) concentration, calculate the mass of solute in a given volume
- Calculate the mass of solute and solvent to prepare a given % (m/m) solution.
- Calculate the mass of solute and volume of solvent to prepare a given % (m/v) solution
- Calculate the volume of solute and solvent to prepare a given % (v/v) solution
- Convert between % and ppm
- For a given molarity solution, calculate the mass of solute required / L
- For a given molarity and volume, calculate the number of moles of solute
- Calculate the volume of a solution with a specified molarity to deliver a given amount of solute
- Given the molarity and volume of a concentrated solution, calculate the volume required to prepare a dilute solution of a specified molarity
- For a given molality solution, calculate the mass of solute required/ 1000 g of solvent
Perform writing tasks to promote learning.
Write effectively for a specific audience and purpose.
Demonstrate the learning of concepts through writing.
Understand accuracy and precision of measurement expressed using scientific notation, English and SI units of measure.
- Recognize measuring devices and the significance of a standard reference
- Convert numbers between fractions and decimals
- Convert numbers between fixed decimal form and scientific notation
- Add, subtract, multiply and divide using scientific notation
- Understand the rationale for the use of significant figures
- Learn metric base units: gram, liter, meter
- Recognize the difference between mass and weight
- Learn metric prefixes: Giga, mega, kilo, deca, deci, centi, milli, micro, pico
- Convert between metric units using unit cancellation method
- Convert temperatures between Fahrenheit and Celsius
- Graph data on an x and y axis and use the graph to predict unknown data
- Distinguish between measured numbers and exact numbers
- Given a measured number, state the number of significant figures
- Use significant figures properly in addition, subtraction, multiplication, division
- Learn rules for rounding
Use the unit conversion method to perform dimensional analysis calculations involving matter and energy.
- Convert measurements between English and metric units using unit cancellation method
- Perform multi-step conversions
- In the laboratory, calculate density from mass and volume
- Experimentally determine the volume of a solid both by direct and indirect methods
- Recognize density as a conversion factor
- In the laboratory, prepare solutions of known concentration, measure the series of densities and graph density as a function of concentration. Use the graph to predict the concentration of an unknown solution of measured density.
- Calculate mass from density and volume
- Calculate volume from density and mass
- Given the parts of one component in a given amount of the total, calculate the per cent of that component
- Express per cent when given a decimal number
- Convert a per cent to a decimal number
- Differentiate between kinetic and potential energy
- Understand Law of Conservation of Energy
- Discuss energy transformation between chemical, mechanical, electrical
- Convert between units of energy: calorie, Calorie, and Joule
- Use specific heat, temperature and mass to calculate heat
- Given appropriate experimental data, calculate the specific heat of a substance
Understand the structure of the atom and formation of ions.
- Distinguish between elements, compounds, and mixtures in terms of their atomic make-up
- State the names, symbols, charges and relative mass for the three subatomic particles
- Given the atomic number, state the number of protons and electrons in an atom and use the Periodic Table to identify the element
- Given the number of protons and neutrons in two atoms, indicate whether the atoms are isotopes
- Given the atomic number and mass number, determine the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in the atom
- Given the atomic number and mass number of two atoms, determine if the atoms are isotopes
- Indicate how anions and cations are formed
- Given the number of protons and electrons in an ion, determine the charge on the ion
- Given the symbol for an ion, including the mass number, charge and atomic number, calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in the ion
- Given the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an ion, write the correct symbol for the ion, including the mass number, atomic number and charge
- Calculate the average atomic mass of an element given the percentage abundances for the isotopes of that element
- Using the Periodic Table, identify the following: group, period, metalloid, alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, halogen, noble gas, inert gas
- Describe the trend of nonmetallic or metallic character among elements within a group
- List the elements that exist as diatomic molecules
- Observe physical properties of some elements
- Use reference data to report physical properties of some elements.
- In the laboratory, observe trends in reactivity of alkali metals. Compare reactivity of alkali metals to alkaline earth metals in the same period. Observe similarities and differences in reactivity of halogen compounds.
Understand the configuration of electrons within an atom and the resultant availability for chemical reaction.
- Recognize significance of electrons as the vehicle for chemical reactions
- Recognize the relationship between minimum energy and maximum stability
- Describe the nature of attraction and repulsion between subatomic particles
- State the relationship between orbitals, sublevels and main energy levels
- State the spin relationship between electrons in the same orbital
- List the order in which atomic orbitals are filled (suggest reference to Periodic Table)
- Write the electron configuration for any A group element
- State and apply Hund's Rule for writing electron configurations and determining the number of unpaired electrons in an atom
- Describe the relationship between the ground state, excited state and energy being absorbed and released.
- Explain the unique light spectrum emitted from an excited atom is unique for a given element
- Explain the relationship between electron arrangement and the Periodic Table
- Use the Periodic Table to identify the number of valence electrons for any A group element
- Write the Lewis dot structure for any element given the number of valence electrons
- Evaluate data and develop trends across periods and down rows for ionization energy, atomic size and electron affinity.
- Observe flame tests on several metallic ions and relate to excited state vs. ground state.
- Recognize the transition metals on the Periodic Table and indicate the distinguishing electronic characteristic
- Define and be able to use the following terms: ground state, quantization, orbital, energy level, electron spin, Pauli exclusion principle, electron configuration, Aufbau principle, Hund's rule, spectroscope, valence electrons, Lewis electron dot structures, ionization energy
Understand role of electrons in ionic and covalent bonds and general properties of ionic and molecular compounds.
- Differentiate between ionic and molecular compounds
- Observe and categorize physical properties of ionic and molecular compounds.
- Describe the octet rule and how both ionic or covalent bonding can follow this rule
- Recognize the duet rule that applied only to hydrogen
- Determine the number of electrons a metal atom will loose to become a cation
- Determine the number of electrons a nonmetal atom will gain to become an anion
- Using the Periodic Table, predict the charge on an ion
- Recognize that the number of electrons lost be metal atoms must equal the number of electrons gained by nonmetal atoms in the formation of an ionic compound
- Write formulas for ionic compounds given the charges on the ions
- Distinguish between monatomic ion and polyatomic ion
- Learn the formulas for the following polyatomic ions: ammonium, acetate, chlorate, cyanide, dihydrogen phosphate, hydrogen carbonate, hydrogen sulfate, hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, perchorate, permanganate, carbonate, chromate, dichromate, hydrogen phosphate, sulfate, sulfite, phosphate
- Distinguish between single, double and triple covalent bonds and relationship to bond length and bond strength
- Write the Lewis electron dot structures for molecular compounds
- Write the Lewis electron dot structures for polyatomic ions
- Describe the trends in electronegativity across a period and down a group
- Differentiate between ionic, polar and nonpolar bonds based on electronegativity
- Predict whether a bond will be ionic, polar or nonpolar based on the elements placement on the Periodic Table
- Use the crossed arrow to label the dipole in a polar covalent bond
- Use partial charge symbolism to label the dipole in a polar covalent bond
- Recognize the formation of a coordinate covalent bond
- Compare the properties of ionic and molecular compounds
- Predict the weight ratio of elements in a compound from the combining ratio of atoms or ions in the compound.
- Define and be able to use the following terms: bond, octet, duet, cation, anion, ionization energy, electron affinity, ionic compound, molecular compound, ionic bond, covalent bond, bonding pair of electrons, nonbonding electrons, lone pair, double bond, triple bond, bond length, bond-dissociation energy, coordinate covalent bond, electronegativity, polarity, dipole
Construct a formula given a compound's name, and also assign a standardized name to a given formula.
- Classify compounds as binary and ternary
- Name metal ions using both the Stock and latin root method
- Name monatomic anions
- Associate name, formula and charge for the following polyatomic ions: ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, chlorate, bromate, iodate, carbonate, manganate, chromate, dichromate, acetate, oxalate
- Recognize oxyacids and learn system for naming oxyacids and salts of oxyacids
- Associate name and formula for binary molecular compounds
- Differentiate naming conventions between a hydrogen halide gas and acid (aqueous) form of the hydrogen halide compound
- Given the chemical formula of a hydrate, name the compound
- Calculate the molecular mass of a molecular compound; calculate the formula mass for an ionic compound
- Recognize molecular mass and formula mass as equivalent to molar masses
- Calculate per cent composition for elements of a compound
- In the laboratory, determine the quantity of an element that is lost during a decomposition reaction and express as a per cent.
- Using experimental data, calculate per cent error from a theoretical result.
Represent chemical reactions using balanced equations
- Represent reactants and products with appropriate chemical formula
- Balance equations so that there are equal numbers of atoms of each element on each side of the equation
- In the laboratory, develop an activity series and understand its use to predict single replacement reactions
- In the laboratory, perform multiple double replacement reactions and recognize the significance of the insolubility of some products as a driving force for the reaction
- Write molecular equations, ionic equations and net ionic equations
- Identify spectator ions
- Define and be able to use the following terms: reactant, product, law of conservation of matter, aqueous, precipitate, catalyst, combination reaction, decomposition reaction, single replacement reaction, double replacement reaction, oxidation-reduction reaction
Understand the relationship between mass, molar mass, and units (including molecules, ions, formula units, atoms)
- Be able to determine the mass of one mole of a several elements and compounds
- Use an understanding of molar mass to convert grams to moles and reverse
- Recognize that equal numbers of atoms are present in any two samples of elements if the they contain an equal number of moles of the element.
- Use Avogadro's Number to convert between moles and number of molecules, formula units, ions, atoms
- Construct conversion factors for grams/mole using the Periodic Table
- Construct conversion factors for units/mole using Avogadro's Number
- Given a molecular formula, determine the empirical formula
- Given the per cent composition of a compound, calculate the empirical formula
- Given the empirical formula and the molar mass, calculate the molecular formula of a compound
- Define and be able to use the following terms: ion, formula unit, gram atomic weight, gram molecular weight, molar mass, empirical formula, empirical weight
- Experimentally determine the empirical formula for a compound made by a combination reaction with known quantities of reactants.