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World of Chemistry

CHM 100W

World of Chemistry

CHM 100W

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 2 and WRITING LEVEL 2 and MATH LEVEL 3.

Develops student understanding of fundamental concepts and methods used in chemistry. Includes topics of the composition, reactivity, arrangement and classification of matter, bonding, nomenclature, rates of reaction, and intermolecular forces. Investigates the context of food, environment, materials, energy, sustainability, and social implications of chemistry. This course is applicable as a lecture and laboratory credit for non-majors to satisfy a science requirement in certain curricula. Not appropriate for chemistry majors. (45-30)

Outcomes and Objectives

Demonstrate and understanding of fundamental chemical vocabulary and classify matter into categories based on an understanding of chemical and physical properties.

Objectives:

  • Classify matter by physical state
  • State the shape and volume characteristics of the three physical states
  • Recognize the application of the scientific method
  • Based on experimental data, differentiate between elements and compounds
  • Classify common substances as a mixture or a pure substance
  • Distinguish between physical and chemical properties and classify examples
  • Differentiate between metals and nonmetals
  • Differentiate between the symbol for an element and a compound
  • Use Avogadro's Number to convert between number of molecules, formula units, ions, atomic mass
  • Perform calculations using scientific notation
  • Use a reference source on properties of substances to classify a sample substance

Describe the effects of temperature and pressure on the volume of a gas and the relationship for moles of any gas at standard temperature and pressure.

Objectives:

  • Recognize units of pressure.
  • Recognize and be able to use the relationship between gas volume, temperature, and pressure
  • Recognize and use Avogadro's Law to explain the relationship between the number of particles and gas volume
  • Recognize the relationship of the Kinetic Molecular Theory to gas behavior

Express concentration of solution by various methods and use units of concentration to calculate quantities of solute.

Objectives:

  • Define solute and solvent
  • Express and be able to convert concentration of a solution as a % (m/m), parts per million, parts per billion and other appropriate units
  • Given a %(m/m) concentration, calculate the mass of solute in a given volume or total mass of a solution
  • Calculate the mass or volume of solute from concentration values

Develop laboratory skills, including proper technique for recording measurements with quantity and units consistent with the device. Students will practice safety procedures in a chemical laboratory.

Objectives:

  • Recognize measuring devices and the significance of a standard reference
  • Utilize safe laboratory procedures
  • Recognize common laboratory hazards
  • Recognize the significance of a Material Safety Data Sheet
  • Demonstrate the proper use of basic laboratory equipment
  • Demonstrate the ability to make measurements accurately
  • Practice basic laboratory techniques such as filtration, distillation, dilution, and others

Perform writing tasks to promote learning.

Apply chemical principles to everyday/real world examples

Demonstrate the learning of concepts through writing.

Explain the importance of units in measurements and perform relevant calculations

Objectives:

  • Learn metric base units: gram, liter, meter
  • Recognize the difference between mass and weight
  • Learn metric prefixes: kilo, centi, milli, micro
  • Convert between metric units
  • Convert temperatures between Fahrenheit and Celsius
  • Interpret data from graphs, charts, and tables
  • Distinguish between measured numbers and exact numbers
  • Convert measurements between English and metric units
  • Calculate density from mass and volume
  • Experimentally determine the volume of a solid both by direct and indirect methods
  • Given the parts of one component in a given amount of the total, calculate the per cent of that component
  • Express and convert between per cent and decimal values
  • Learn rules for rounding

Demonstrate the relationship between energy changes and changes of state as well as perform appropriate calculations.

Objectives:

  • Apply the Law of Conservation of Energy
  • Discuss energy transformation between chemical, mechanical, electrical
  • Convert between units of energy: calorie, Calorie, and Joule
  • Use specific heat, temperature and mass in calculations
  • Differentiate between endothermic and exothermic reactions.

Describe the structure of the atom and formation of ions.

Objectives:

  • Distinguish between elements, compounds, and mixtures in terms of their atomic makeup
  • State the names, symbols, charges and relative mass for the three subatomic particles
  • Given the atomic number, state the number of protons and electrons in an atom and use the Periodic Table to identify the element
  • Describe how anions and cations are formed
  • Given the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an ion, write the correct symbol for the ion, including the mass number, atomic number and charge
  • Using the Periodic Table, identify the following: group, period, metalloid, alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, halogen, noble gas, inert gas
  • Describe the trend of nonmetallic or metallic character among elements
  • List the elements that exist as diatomic molecules
  • Observe physical properties of some elements and compounds
  • Use reference data to report physical properties of some elements and compounds.

Describe the configuration of electrons within an atom and the resultant availability for chemical reaction.

Objectives:

  • Recognize significance of electrons in chemical reactions
  • Recognize the relationship between minimum energy and maximum stability
  • Describe the nature of attraction and repulsion between subatomic particles
  • Describe the relationship between the ground state, excited state, and energy being absorbed and released.
  • Recognize that the light spectrum emitted from an excited atom is unique for a given element
  • Use the Periodic Table to identify the number of valence electrons for any main group element
  • Write the Lewis dot structure for any element given the number of valence electrons.
  • Use trends from the Periodic table to make predictions about properties.
  • Observe flame tests on several metallic ions and relate to excited state vs. ground state.
  • Recognize the transition metals on the Periodic Table

Describe the role of electrons in chemical bonds and general properties of ionic and molecular compounds.

Objectives:

  • Differentiate between ionic and molecular compounds
  • Observe and categorize physical properties of ionic and molecular compounds.
  • Describe the octet rule and how both ionic or covalent bonding can follow this rule
  • Recognize the duet rule that applies only to hydrogen
  • Determine the number of electrons a metal atom will lose to become a cation
  • Determine the number of electrons a nonmetal atom will gain to become an anion
  • Using the Periodic Table, predict the charge on an ion
  • Write formulas for ionic compounds given the charges on the ions
  • Distinguish between a monatomic ion and polyatomic ion
  • Recognize the formulas for common polyatomic ions.
  • Distinguish between single, double and triple covalent bonds and bond strength
  • Write the Lewis electron dot structures for molecular compounds
  • Write the Lewis electron dot structures for polyatomic ions
  • Describe the trends in electronegativity across a period and down a group
  • Differentiate between ionic, polar and nonpolar bonds based on electronegativity.
  • Use symbolism to indicate the dipole in a polar covalent bond.
  • Recognize the shape of a compound based on its Lewis structure and 3-dimensional arrangement.
  • Determine the relative polarity of a compound based the polarity of its bonds, its Lewis structure and its shape
  • Determine if a compound will be water soluble or not based on its polarity
  • Predict the physical property differences between polar and non-polar compounds in terms of attractive forces between molecules
  • Compare the properties of ionic and molecular compounds
  • Predict the weight ratio of elements in a compound from the combining ratio of atoms or ions in the compound.

Construct a formula from the name of a compound, and generate a name from a chemical formula.

Objectives:

  • Name metal ions using both the Stock and Latin root method
  • Name monatomic anions
  • Recognize acids
  • Associate name and formula for binary molecular compounds
  • Recognize the chemical names for a number of household compounds
  • Calculate the formula mass for a compound
  • Calculate percent composition for elements of a compound

Represent chemical reactions using balanced equations

Objectives:

  • Represent reactants and products with appropriate chemical formula
  • Write and balance equations so that there are equal numbers of atoms of each element on each side of the equation
  • Develop an activity series and understand its use to predict reactivity
  • Use double replacement reactions and recognize the significance of the insolubility of some products as a driving force for the reaction
  • Distinguish between physical change and chemical change and classify examples

Perform calculations relating the quantities of chemical reactants and products.

Objectives:

  • Interpret a balanced equation to represent the ratio of reactants and products
  • Use chemical equations and mass balance to predict