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Human Anatomy & Physiology Review

BIO 160AW

Human Anatomy & Physiology Review

BIO 160AW

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 3, WRITING LEVEL 3 AND MATH LEVEL 3; and BIO 140 or BIO 153 with a "C" (2.

0) minimum grade. Provides review and update of contents of cardiovascular system from BIO 140 or BIO 153 using cooperative learning found in Health Care Team concept. Focuses on developing and strengthening abilities in critical thinking, problem solving, and student directed learning. (15-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

Demonstrate an understanding of cardiac muscle tissue

Objectives:

  • List the three types of muscle
  • Define myogenic
  • Define intercalated discs
  • Compare the three types of muscle tissue
  • Relate the following terms: myogenic, self excitation, inherent rhythmicity, syncytium, cell to cell stimulation, long absolute refractory

Understand the factors that affect mean arterial pressure

Objectives:

  • Define Starling's law of heart, contractility, and peripheral resistance
  • Define carotid/aortic sinuses, pressoreceptors, cardiac output, and stroke volume
  • Describe how the pressoreceptors respond to increased volume of blood leaving the heart
  • Explain the role of the aortic/carotid sinuses
  • Calculate heart rate if given the cardiac output and stroke volume

Describe the Action Potential of Cardiac Muscle

Objectives:

  • Define action potential, absolute refractory, and relative refractory periods for cardiac muscle.
  • Compare and contrast the nerve action potential to the cardiac muscle action potential
  • Describe the role of Na+ and K+ in the heart muscle action potential
  • Describe the role of Ca++ in the heart action potential
  • Suggest the advantage of a long refractory period to the heart
  • Indicate on a graph of a normal cardiac muscle action potential, what effect EDTA (Ca++ binding agent) would have
  • Design an experiment that would show the effects of changes in Ca++concentration and contraction of cardiac muscle

Demonstrate an understanding of the anatomy and blood flow through the heart

Objectives:

  • Name the major vessels associated with the heart
  • Name the chambers and structures blood passes as it moves from right heart to left heart
  • Name the layers of the heart wall
  • Name the valves between the chambers
  • Name the valves leaving the heart
  • Differentiate between systemic and pulmonary circulation
  • Predict what would happen if a patient experienced right side or left side heart failure
  • Predict the flow of blood in an adult heart if there is an opening in the interventricular wall
  • Predict how blood will move if a person suffers a severe right heart infarction

Demonstrate an understanding of how the heart beats and understanding of the EKG

Objectives:

  • Illustrate and label the conductive pathway
  • Describe the role of the components of the conductive pathway: SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, bundle branch fibers,and Purkinje fibers.
  • Define EKG and what information it provides
  • Label and identify the components of an EKG and describe events happening during each component
  • Compare normal EKG to abnormal (e.g. Sinus Tachycardia, Bradycardia, and PVCs)

Understand and describe the cardiac cycle

Objectives:

  • Define diastole, systole, ventricular filling, and ventricular ejection
  • Define isovolumetric contraction, isovolumetric relaxation
  • Describe the events of the atrial diastole
  • Describe the events of the atrial systole
  • Describe the events of the ventricular diastole
  • Describe the events of the ventricular systole
  • Given a graph of the cardiac cycle, explain the reasons for all the pressure changes seen in the atrium
  • Predict and explain the phase of the cardiac cycle when ventricular volume is low
  • Compare the position of the valves in isovolumetric contraction vs isovolumetric relaxation

Understand the factors that affect heart rate

Objectives:

  • Define the autonomic nervous system (ANS)
  • Describe the components of the ANS with respect to division, location, type of neurotransmitter
  • Indicate what affect stress, age, gender, and temperature have on heart muscle
  • Discuss the role of Ca++ on heart muscle contraction and rate

Understand and describe arrhythmic conditions of the heart

Objectives:

  • Define rhythmic and arrhythmias
  • Define the following terms related to arrhythmias: tachycardia, bradycardia, ectopic beats, flutter, fibrillation, SA and AV nodal block, murmurs
  • Describe three factors that might cause a tachycardia
  • Describe the parameters for an NSR ( normal sinus rhythym)
  • Describe the parameters on an EKG for V tachycardia, and V fibrillation

Understand and describe vessels of the circulatory system

Objectives:

  • Define artery, arteriole, vein, venule and capillary
  • Describe the anatomy of an artery, a vein, and a capillary
  • Describe the flow of blood through a capillary bed
  • Label the major arteries and veins of the body
  • Describe coronary venous blood flow
  • Describe coronary arterial blood flow

Demonstrate a knowledge of the role blood vessels play in delivering blood to tissues

Objectives:

  • Define Starling's Law of Capillary
  • Define capillary osmotic pressure, capillary hydrostatic pressure, and interstitial hydrostatic pressure
  • Define systolic pressure vs diastolic pressure and interpret a blood pressure reading
  • Relate blood volume to blood pressure