Human Anatomy & Physiology IIBIO 153W
Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 3, WRITING LEVEL 3 AND MATH LEVEL 3; BIO 152 with a "C" (2.
0) minimum grade or BIO 140 with a "B" (3.0) minimum grade. BIO 153 is a continuation of BIO 152. Investigates the anatomy and physiology of the following systems: circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive. Includes human developmental biology and fluids and electrolytes. (45-45)
Outcomes and Objectives
The student will develop an understanding of the anatomy of the lymphatic system.
- Define and compare lymph and chyle
- Define lymph capillaries, vessels, ducts, and nodes
- List the regional groupings oflymph nodes
- List the three types of tonsils
- Describe the anatomical differences of the lymph vessels and circulatory vessels
- Describe how the anatomy of the capillaries, vessels, and nodes allow for their functional ability
- Explain the function of a lymph node and relate this to its anatomy
- Describe the different functional area served by each lymphatic duct
The student will become familiar with the gross anatomy of the urinary system
- Identify and locate the organs of the urinary system
- Describe the tissues and regions of the organs of the urinary system
- Relate the function of each of the organs of the urinary system with the gross structure
The student will become familiar with the microscopic features of the kidney, the ureter, and the bladder
- Identify the cells tht compromise the following portions of the major organs of the urinary system: i.e. nephron and collecting tubules.
- The student will be able to describe the cells of the following regions: pelvic region of kidney, smooth muscle of the bladder, mucous membrane of the ureter and bladder, etc.
- Relate microscopic structure with function in the kidney, ureter, and bladder
The student will become familiar with the process of the formation of urine.
- Define the three major processes in urine formation.
- Explain the various forces that affect the rate of filtrate formation in the glomerulus.
- Explain tubular reabsorption.
- Tubular secretion.
- Predict the effect on glomerular filtrate formation based on blood pressure changes, plasma protein concentration changes, stress, and higher than normal blood sugar levels.
- Identify what major components of the glomerular filtrate are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule and through what process.
- Identify the major biochemicals that are actually secreted into the filtrate and where the effect on the composition of the filtrate and urine.
The student will become familiar with those processes that assist in the concentration of the filtrate.
- Discuss the effect on filtrate concentration in relation to the reabsorption of biochemicals from the proximal convoluting tubule.
- Identify the hormone ADH as to where produced, target tissue, and the overall effects of this hormone.
- Explain the counter-current mechanism.
- Relate the processes occurring in the Loop of Henle relative to the counter-current mechanism with the effect of ADH on the distal and collecting tubules or with the overall concentration of urine.
- Relate the normal processes of reabsorption with the abnormal physiology associated with diabetes mellitus. ( or explain why polyuria develops)
The student will become familiar with the role that the nephron plays in regulating the pH of the plasma.
- Write and explain the chemical reactions that relate to both the phosphate buffer system.
- The student will be able to write and explain the chemical reactions that relate to the formation of ammonium ions in the nephron tubules.
- Explain the ways in which the phosphate buffer system can assist in acidifying
- Explain the ways in which the formation of ammonium ion can assist in acidifying the urine.
- Relate the effects of long term stress on a patient relative to kidney function.
The student will become familiar with the hormones that affect the functions of the urinary system.
- For each of the following hormones or hormone pathways, the student should be able to discuss:
- Where produced, target tissue of hormone, what triggers the hormone's release and what slows down or turns off this hormone release:
- Renin-Angiotensin Pathway
- Explain the differences in either the composition of the resultant urine formed or the rate at which urine is formed under the influence of aldosterone, parathormone, renin, and epinephrine.
- Explain why having just one arcuate artery blockage could lead to acute hypertension.
The student will become familiar with urinalysis.
- Detail the different tests that make up a complete urinalysis.
- Explain what the normal parameters are for a routine urinalysis.
- The student shall be familiar with terms that are used to describe abnormal urines; i.e. glycosuria, pyuria, etc.
- Relate abnormal findings on a urinalysis with possible diagnoses.
The student will become familiar with the distribution of body fluids.
- Identify the different fluid compartments of the body.
- Identify the differing levels of significant materials to the human body that are found in the intracellular vs. extracellular compartments.
The student will become familiar with the mechanisms for the regulation of water balance.
- Discuss the water intake vs. water output on a 24 hour basis.
- Relate the details of the thirst mechanism.
- Review the role of ADD and osmoreceptor to overall water balance.
The student will become familiar with the concept of electrolyte balance.
- The student will be able to discuss the mechanisms whereby the human body maintains the appropriate electrolyte balance for the following electrolytes:
- Na+, K+, Cl-, Mg++, Ca++, PO4 -3, and SO4-3
The student will develop a functional understanding of the lymphatic system physiology
- List the functions of the lymphatic system.
- Describe the structure of lymphatic capillaries, vessels, thoracic duct, and right lymphatic duct and relate to flow of lymph.
- Describe structure of lymph node.
- Define edema and list several causes of edema.
- Describe the factors that result in lymph flow.
- Explain the role of the following associated organs to the lymphatic system: lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and thymus gland.
- Relate how changes in exercise affects Starling's Law of Capillary and resulting lymph formation and flow.
- Explain how edema results from blocked lymph channels, heart malfunction, and alter capillary permeability.
The student will become familiar with the concept of acid-base balance.
- Relate the sources of hydrogen ions and the overall effect that these would have on the system without a mechanism to control them.
- Explain the following buffer system, and their importance in the body:
- -Bicarbonate Buffer System
- -Phosphate Buffer System
- -Protein Buffer System
- -Formation of Ammonium
- Define and provide medical reasons for the following: metabolic acidosis or alkalosis and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.
Develop an understanding of the anatomy of the human digestive system
- List the layers of the digestive tract.
- Identify the major structures of the digestive tract and associated accessory organs.
- Discuss the function of the major structures of the digestive tract and associated accessory organs.
Define the role of hormones that control digestion and absorption
- Define hormone, target organ, calorie, catabolism, anabolism, and metabolism.
- Discuss the functions of the following hormones on the digestive system: gastrin, enterogastrone, secretin and cholecystokinin.
Describe the process of mechanical and chemical digestion
- Define enzyme, mechanical and chemical digestion, segmentation, and mass peristalsis.
- List the major enzymes used by the digestive system.
- Explain the action of the major enzymes of the digestive system and the required environmental conditions for their function.
- Describe the role of the liver in the digestive process.
Develop an understanding of the digestive system functions that result in nutrient absorption by the body.
- Define absorption, villi, microvilli, and sinusoids.
- Explain the absorptive role, or lack thereof, of each part of the digestive system.
- Describe the role of the liver in the absorptive process using the following terms: glycogenesis, glyconeogenesis, deamination, transamination and lipogenesis.
- Given the results of digestion of any organic molecule, be able to analyze absorptive processes and interactions of metabolism for that molecule in relation to the digestive system and accessory organs.
Develop a basic knowledge of vitamins
- Define vitamin, water-soluble, and fat-soluble.
- For each of the following vitamins categorize them as to fat or water soluble, their major function, excess or deficiency problems, and a possible dietary source: D, E, A, K, B1, B2, B6, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid, Folic Acid, B12, and C.
Develop an understanding of cardiac muscle tissue
- List the three types of muscle
- Define myogenic
- Define intercalated discs
- Compare the three types of muscle tissue
- Relate the following terms: myogenic, self excitation, inherent rhythmicity, syncytium, cell to cell stimulation, long absolute refractory
Describe the Action Potential of Cardiac Muscle
- Define action potential, absolute refractory, and relative refractory periods for cardiac muscle.
- Compare and contrast the nerve action potential to the cardiac muscle action potential
- Describe the role of Na+ and K+ in the heart muscle action potential
- Describe the role of Ca++ in the heart action potential
- Suggest the advantage of a long refractory period to the heart
- Indicate on a graph of a normal cardiac muscle action potential, what effect EDTA (Ca++ binding agent) would have.
- Design an experiment that would show the effects of changes in Ca++concentration and contraction of cardiac muscle
Develop an understanding of the anatomy of the heart
- Name the major vessels associated with the heart
- Name the chambers of the heart
- Name the layers of the heart wall
- Name the muscle arrangement in the chamber types of the heart
- Name the valves between the chambers
- Name the valves at the entry of the artery
- Describe the role of the major vessels
- Differentiate between L/R atria
- Differentiate between L/R ventricles
- Differentiate between atrioventricular and semilunar valves
- Define the role of the layers of the heart
Develop an understanding of how the valves work.
- Name the 4 functional valves found in the heart
- Define flow and pressure
- Describe how the ventricle establishes Pressure differences
- Differentiate between semilunar and atrioventricular valves
- Describe the state(relaxed, contracted) of the ventricle necessary to open and close the 2 types of valves
The student will develop an understanding of the function the innate and adaptive body defenses.
- Define immuncompetence and self-tolerance
- Define humoral immunity.
- Name the two major types of structures composing the lymphatic system
- Identify the function(s) of lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, Peyer’s patches, and the spleen
- Describe the surface membrane barriers and their protective functions
- Explain the importance of phagocytosis and natural killer cells in nonspecific body defense.
- Describe the inflammatory process. Identify several inflammatory chemicals and indicate their specific roles.
- Name the body's antimicrobial substances and describe their function.
- Explain how fever helps protect the body
- Define antigen and describe how antigens affect the immune system.
- Follow antigen processing in the body.
- Compare and contrast the origin, maturation process, and general function of B and T lymphocytes
- Describe the role of macrophages and other phagocytes.
- Describe the process of clonal selection of a B cell.
- Recount the roles of plasma cells and memory cells in humoral immunity.
- Compare and contrast active and passive humoral immunity.
- Describe the structure of an antibody monomer and its role in the activation of complement
- Explain the function(s) of antibodies and describe clinical uses of monoclonal antibodies
- Define cell-mediated immunity and describe the process of activation and clonal selection of T cells.
- Describe the functions of cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, suppressor T cells and memory T cells
- Describe how the antigen-antibody complex destroys the antigen
- Differentiate between the primary and secondary response to an antigen.
Understand the heart's role in receiving and delivering blood to the tissues
- Name the chambers and structures blood passes as it moves from right heart to left heart
- Define the role of the atrium in heart function
- Define the role of the ventricle in heart function
- Define the role of the valves
- Describe how the ventricles are responsible for pushing blood through the heart
- Describe why blood moves from right to left
- Predict the flow of blood in an adult heart if there is an opening in the interventricular wall
- Predict how blood will move if a person suffers a severe right heart infarction.
- Design an experiment that would differentiate the value of the atria vs the ventricle in blood vessel delivery
Develop an understanding of how the heart beats
- Illustrate and label the conductive pathway
- Describe the role of the components of the conductive pathway: SA node, internodal fibers, AV node, Bundle of His, bundle branch fibers,and Purkinje fibers.
- Describe how the signal passes from SA node to myocardium for contraction of the cardiac muscle
- Given a minor damage to the Bundle of His, describe what change would be expected in the length of the signal?
- Design an experiment that proves the SA node is a necessary factor in heart rate conduction
Understand and describe the cardiac cycle
- Define diastole, systole, ventricular filling, and ventricular ejection
- Define isovolumetric contraction, isovolumetric relaxation
- Describe the events of the atrial diastole
- Describe the events of the atrial systole
- Describe the events of the ventricular diastole
- Describe the events of the ventricular systole
- Given a graph of the cardiac cycle, explain the reasons for all the pressure changes seen in the atrium
- Predict and explain the phase of the cardiac cycle when ventricular volume is low
- Compare the position of the valves in isovolumetric contraction vs isovolumetric relaxation
Develop an understanding of the EKG
- Define EKG
- Label and identify the components of an EKG
- Define the components of the EKG
- Define the segments and intervals of the EKG
- Describe how to read an EKG
- Describe normal lengths for each of the segments/intervals
- Relate the EKG pattern to the activity of the heart during conduction of the signal from SA node to AV node
- Given a minor damage to the Bundle of His, describe what change would be expected in the EKG.
- Given a minor damage to the left bundle branch, describe what change would be expected in the EKG.
Understand the factors that affect heart rate
- Define the autonomic nervous system (ANS)
- Describe the components of the ANS with respect to division, location, type of neurotransmitter
- Indicate what effect ions have on heart muscle
- Indicate what affect stress, age, and gender have on heart muscle
- Indicate what effect temperature has on heart muscle
- Discuss the role of Ca++ on heart muscle contraction and rate
- Discuss the role of temperature on heart muscle contraction and rate
- Discuss the role of stress on heart muscle contraction and rate
- Discuss the role of age on heart muscle contraction and rate
Understand and describe arrhythmic conditions of the heart
- Define rhythmic and arrhythmias
- Define the following terms related to arrhythmias: tachycardia, bradycardia, ectopic beats, flutter, fibrillation, SA and AV nodal block, murmurs
- Describe three factors that might cause a tachycardia
- Describe the parameters for an NSR ( normal sinus rhythym).
- Describe the parameters on an EKG for V tachycardia, and V fibrillation.
- Design an experiment that would show the change in the atrial pressure if valve is always closed
Understand and describe vessels of the circulatory system
- Define artery, vein, and capillary
- Describe the anatomy of an artery, a vein, and a capillary
- Describe the flow of blood through a capillary bed
- Describe the path of blood to all parts of the brain
- Label the major arteries and veins of the body.
- Describe coronary venous blood flow
- Describe coronary arterial blood flow
- Relate structure of an artery to its function
- Relate structure of a vein to its function
- Relate structure of a capillary to its function
- Predict effect on coronary flow if the LAD is blocked
Develop a knowledge of the role blood vessels play in delivering blood to tissues
- Define the direction blood moves in an artery
- Define the direction blood moves in a vein
- Define Starling's Law of Capillary
- Define capillary osmotic pressure, capillary hydrostatic pressure, and interstitial hydrostatic pressure
- Define blood volume, blood pressure, and Korotkoff sounds
- Define systolic pressure vs diastolic pressure
- Define sphygmomanometer
- Describe how a sphygmomanometer works
- Describe how one measures blood pressure
- Describe how the values are derived
- Describe what the systolic and diastolic pressure mean
- Describe the forces that act to promote exchange across the venous end of a capillary
- Describe the forces that act to promote exchange across the arterial end of a capillary
- Relate blood volume to blood pressure
- Predict what will happen to blood flow if the elastic layer in a vessel is damaged
Understand some pathologies associated with vessel function.
- Define hypertension.
- Define essential hypertension
- Define functional hypertension
- Define arteriosclerosis
- Define aneurysms
- Define shock
- Describe a treatment for arteriosclerosis
- Describe the types of shock
- Compare and contrast types of shock
- Discuss the effects of aneurysms on blood pressure
- Discuss effect of smoking on hypertension
- Predict what effect an increased peripheral resistance on arteriosclerotic vessels
- Design an experiment that would show the relationship between peripheral resistance and development of shock
Understand the factors that affect mean arterial pressure
- Define Starling's law of heart, contractility, and peripheral resistance
- Define carotid/aortic sinuses, pressoreceptors, cardiac output, and stroke volume
- Describe how the pressoreceptors respond to increased volume of blood leaving the heart
- Explain the role of the aortic/carotid sinuses
- Predict what will happen to cardiac output if ventricular atrophy occurs
- Determine the activity of the pressoreceptors if constriction of the artery occurs
- Calculate heart rate if given the cardiac output and stroke volume
- Relate Starling's Law to stroke volume
- Predict the change in peripheral resistance if heart rate increases
- Design an experiment that would show the relationship between blood pressure and peripheral resistance
- Design an experiment that would show the relationship between ventricular filling and change in stroke volume
The student will develop familiarity with the organs of the respiratory system and its functions.
- Identify the major components of the respiratory system.
- Identify the tissues that make up the major organs of the respiratory system.
- Locate the major components of the respiratory system.
- Identify the muscles involved with quiet respiration.
- Identify the muscles involved with forced respiration.
- Discuss the functions of the major components of the respiratory system.
- Discuss relationship between movement of diaphragm and the volume of thoracic cavity.
- Discuss relationship between movement of external intercostal and the volume of thoracic cavity.
- Discuss relationship between movement of internal and external intercostals and rectus abdominis and the volume of the thoracic cavity.
- Describe the effects on the pleural cavity and lung function as result of pneumothorax.
- Explain the way in which sounds are produced by the vocal cords.
Develop a knowledge of fetal circulation
- Define foramen ovale, ductus venosus, ductus arteriosus, umbilicus, and the role of the placenta
- Describe the route of blood through fetal heart through placenta back to fetal heart
- Describe the changes of the ductus venosus after birth
- Describe the changes of the ductus arteriosus after birth
- Discuss the changes in fetal structures after birth
- Predict the outcome in the newborn if the foramen ovale fails to close
- Design an experiment that would explain the role of the umbilicus on fetal blood flow
Develop a knowledge of male reproductive anatomy
- List the structures of the male reproductive tract
- Define the function of the structures of the male tract
- Describe the route sperm take to reach the outside from the testes
- Describe the tissue layers of each area of the male tract
- Describe the divisions of the male urethra
- Describe the structure of the male penis
- Describe the contribution of each of the glands of the male tract
- Explain the blood flow to the penis
- Describe the anatomy of the sperm
- Predict where sperm will accumulate if the rete testis is cut
- Differentiate between secretion of the prostate vs the bulbourethral gland
Develop a knowledge of male reproductive physiology and related pathologies
- Define the role of the pituitary in male reproduction
- List the hormones from the pituitary that control the male tract
- List the cell of the testes that respond to pituitary hormones
- Define negative feedback and spermatogenesis
- Describe the response of the sustentacular and interstitial cells to pituitary hormones
- Discuss how these two cells participate in a negative feedback with the pituitary
- Describe the role of testosterone on the male system
- Describe the roles of the sustentacular cells.
- Describe the role of the interstitial cells
- Describe the roles of the following hormones: GnRH, FSH, LH, testosterone, APB and inhibin.
- Predict symptoms that would occur in the male if the sustentacular or interstitial cells were removed
- Design an experiment that would relate levels of testosterone with spermatogenesis
Develop a knowledge of female reproductive anatomy
- List the structures of the female reproductive tract.
- Explain the function of the structures of the female tract
- Describe the anatomy of the Graafian follicle
- Describe the changes of the ovary during the 28 day cycle
- Describe the structure of the uterus
- Describe the female vulva and all of its components
- Describe the path of the "ovum" from ovary to uterus
- Describe the tissues of each area of the female trac
- Compare and contrast the female clitoris to the male penis
- Design an experiment that would suggest the role of the follicular cells of the "ovum".
Develop a knowledge of female reproductive physiology and related pathologies
- Define the role of the pituitary in female reproduction
- List the hormones from the pituitary that control the female tract
- Name the areas of the ovary that respond to pituitary hormones
- Define oogenesis, ovulation, and menstruation
- Describe the response of the granulosa and theca cells to pituitary hormones
- Discuss how these two structures participate in a negative feedback with the pituitary
- Describe the role of estrogen , progesterone and testosterone on the female system
- Describe the changes in the levels of GnRh, FSH, LH, estrogen, and progesterone hormones that occur in each menstrual month
- Describe the role of these hormones on ovulation
- Describe the role of these hormones on menstruation
- Predict some symptoms that might occur if a female loses estrogen
- Given a hormone level in blood from a female patient, predict the stage of menstruation
Develop a knowledge of pregnancy and related pathologies
- Define contraception, pregnancy, implantation, gestation, placenta, gastrulation, and parturition.
- Describe the role of the uterus in pregnancy
- Describe the role of the cervix during pregnancy
- Describe the changes in the uterus that occur as a result of pregnancy
- Describe the stages of the egg from fertilization to birth
- Describe the role of the female hormones in preparation of the uterus
- Describe the role of the vaginal tract in pregnancy
- Describe the hormonal state of a pregnant female
- Describe the hormones produced by the placenta and the role they play
- Describe the role of the placenta during gestation
- Describe some key changes in each month of gestation
- Describe the role of the developing embryo in maintaining the conceptus before the development of the placenta
- Describe the negative feedback between uterus and pituitary during pregnancy
- Describe the negative feedback between uterus and ovary during pregnancy
- Describe the three stages of parturition and the role of progesterone, estrogen, and oxytocin.
- Explain some of the more common routine tests run during the prenatal period; i.e. amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, ultrasound, alpha-feto protein testing.
- Predict the changes in pregnancy if progesterone levels drop
- Compare and contrast the hormonal state of a 1 month pregnant female to that of a non-pregnant female
Develop a knowledge of lactation and related pathologies
- Define lactation, mammary tissue, and myoepithelial cells
- Define the role of the hypothalamus and pituitary in lactation
- Define the role of the hypothalamus and pituitary
- Describe the route of milk from gland to outside
- Describe the negative feedback between mammary and pituitary
- Describe the role of prolactin in milk production
- Describe the role of oxytocin in milk ejection
- Describe the role off P.H. and PAL in control of lactation
- Describe the role of the female hormones in lactation
- Predict what would happen to lactation if progesterone levels were low
- Predict what would happen to mammary tissue if only estrogen were present
Develop a knowledge of fetal development
- Define differentiation and germ layers
- List the germ layers that develop during differentiation
- Name the stage of pregnancy in which differentiation starts
- Define umbilicus
- Describe the role of the female hormones in differentiation
- Describe the functions of the germ layers
- Describe the roles of the following extra-embryonic membranes: amnion, chorion, allantois, and yolk sac.
- Describe the role of the umbilical cord in development
- Describe the neonatal adjustments at birth.
- Predict the symptoms that would occur in the fetus if the placenta were damaged
- Predict what structures would fail to develop if the mesoderm was absent
- Explain the factors behind the rise in bilirubin levels at birth.
Perform writing tasks to promote learning.
Write effectively for a specific audience and purpose.
The student will develop familiarity with the microscopic anatomy of the respiratory system and the functions.
- Describe the tissue and cellular structures of the following: the respiratory bronchioles, the alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and the alveoli.
- Describe the structure of the respiratory membrane.
- Explain the relationship between the capillary bed and the alveolus.
- Explain the function of the ciliated pseudostratified epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract as it relates to serving as a mechanical barrier to antigens and particulate matter in the air.
Demonstrate the learning of concepts through writing
The student will develop an understanding of the nervous system structures that control the respiratory cycle.
- Describe the regions of the medulla and pons that control respirations.
- Describe the locations of the chemoreceptors that provide sensory information relative to respiratory control.
- Describe the locations of the stretch receptors that provide information relative to respiratory control.
- Describe the ANS pathways that connect the sensory data relative to respiratory control to the effector or motor responses on the muscles of respiration.
- Explain why an individual can suffer major damage to the cerebral cortex and yet still manage to continue living.
- Explain the Hering-Breuer reflex as it relates to prevention of over-inflation of the lungs.
The student will demonstrate an understanding of the mechanisms involved in the respiratory cycle.
- Identify and define the terms associated with spirometry; i.e. tidal volume, etc.
- Explain the correlation between pressure and volume of gases.
- Describe surfactant and its function in respiration.
- Relate the effects of increased levels of CO2 in the plasma and the corresponding drop in Ph in the CSF to an increase in respirations.
- Correlate atmospheric pressure, intrapulmonic pressure, and intra-pleural pressures with inhalation and exhalation.
- Compare the contrast the roles that increased CO2 levels and decreased O2 levels have on respirations.
- Explain why the death of premature infants from SIDS has been dramatically reduced in the last ten years.
- Explain why emphysema patients appear to have enlarged thoracic volume and yet exhibit respiratory problems.
The student will become knowledgeable with the principles of diffusion as they relate to respiratory gases.
- Relate the general laws relative to diffusion of gases.
- Define the concept of partial pressure of gases in a mixture.
- Relate partial pressure of gases with diffusion of O2 and CO2 at the alveolus and at the tissue level.
The student will become knowledgeable with the ways that the erythrocyte is involved with the transport of O2, CO2, CO, and H+.
- Relate the structure of the hemoglobin molecule to its ability to transport O2 as oxyhemoglobin, and CO2 as carbamino hemoglobin.
- Relate the structure of the hemoglobin molecule to its ability to carry H+.
- Relate the structure of the hemoglobin molecule to its ability to react with CO as carboxyhemoglobin.
- Relate the presence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) with the role the RBC plays in CO2 transport as plasma HCO3-.
- Explain the effect that pH has on O2 carrying capacity by the hemoglobin molecule.
- Explain the effect that temperature has on the O2 carrying capacity of the hemoglobin molecule.
- Explain the effect that CO2 concentration has on the O2 carrying capacity of the hemoglobin molecule.
- Explain the effect that O2 concentration has on the O2 carrying capacity of the hemoglobin molecule.
- Provide the series of reactions that demonstrate the connections at the alveolar level between the unloading by the hemoglobin molecule and the plasma of CO2 and the subsequent loading of O2.
- Provide the series of reactions that demonstrate the biochemical connections at the tissue level between the loading of the hemoglobin molecule with H+ and CO2 and subsequent unloading of the O2 molecules.
- Explain why hyperventilation can lead to respiratory alkalosis.
- Explain why hemoglobin can be considered as an acid buffer.