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Human Anatomy & Physiology I

BIO 152W

Human Anatomy & Physiology I

BIO 152W

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 3; and WRITING LEVEL 3 and MATH LEVEL 3.

Recommended: BIO 130 or high school chemistry. Prepares for various allied health and nursing professions as first course of two semester sequence. Provides an introduction to the basic principles of chemistry and biochemistry as they relate to human physiology. Gives major consideration to the anatomy and physiology of cells and tissues and the following systems: skeletal, muscle, nervous, and endocrine. (45-45)

Outcomes and Objectives

Develop an understanding of the relationship between anatomy and physiology in the human body.

Objectives:

  • Define anatomy and physiology.
  • Name (in order of increasing complexity) the different levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and explain their relationships.

Develop an understanding of cell growth and reproduction as it relates to the study of anatomy and physiology.

Objectives:

  • Describe the key events of each phase of the cell life cycle (interphase and the mitotic phase).
  • Explain the significance of the mitotic phase (somatic cell division).
  • Explain how cancer is a disruption of the normal cell cycle.

Develop an understanding of protein synthesis and mutations as it relates to the study of anatomy and physiology.

Objectives:

  • Define gene.
  • Explain the meaning of autosomal traits, dominant vs. recessive traits, and sex-linked (X-linked) traits.
  • Explain the function of genes and the meaning of "genetic code".
  • Name the two phases of protein synthesis (transcription and translation).
  • Describe the roles of DNA, mRNA, tRNA and rRNA in each phase of protein synthesis.
  • Given a strand of DNA and an amino acid-nucleic acid dictionary, predict the amino acid sequence in a polypeptide.
  • Predict the outcome of a protein synthesized if a substitution of one nitrogen base is made for another nitrogen base.
  • Explain how a mutation may result in an altered expression of a trait.
  • Explain how the absence or low levels of correctly formed proteins may contribute to genetic diseases.
  • Explain the relationship between DNA, chromosomes, genes, mutations and proteins.
  • Explain the basic function of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in controlling cell replication.

Develop an understanding of the major tissue types in the human body.

Objectives:

  • Name the four major types of tissue found in the human body.
  • Discuss the general characteristics of epithelial tissue that make it well suited as a tissue that lines surfaces and cavities.
  • List the major functions of epithelial tissue.
  • Name and describe the three "layering" arrangements (simple, pseudostratified, stratified) of epithelial tissue.
  • Name and describe the three "shape" categories (squamous, cuboidal, columnar) of epithelial tissue.
  • Name the major types of epithelium and identify an organ in which each is found.
  • Discuss the components of connective tissue that account for its varied functions and locations in the human body.
  • Describe the types of connective tissue found in the body, and indicate the general functions for each type.
  • Discuss the general characteristics of muscle tissue that allow it to be used in propulsion of the skeleton and hollow organs.
  • List the three types of muscle tissue.
  • Compare and contrast the three types of muscle tissue based on the following criteria: location, control (voluntary or involuntary), cell shape, presence or absence of striations, number of nuclei.
  • List the two cell types found in nervous tissue.
  • Discuss the characteristics of each cell type found in nervous tissue.
  • Discuss the functions of each cell type found in nervous tissue.

Explain the role of the integumentary system as a functioning organ of the human body.

Objectives:

  • List the general functions of each membrane type (cutaneous, mucous, serous, and synovial) and identify a location for each in the body.
  • List several important functions of the integumentary system and explain how these functions are accomplished.
  • Name the two layers of the cutaneous membrane and describe their functions.
  • Name the accessory structures (derivatives) of the skin and describe their functons.
  • Identify on a model or drawing the layers of the skin and the accessory structures (derivatives) of the skin.
  • Name the layers (strata) of the epidermis.
  • Develop an explanation of the importance of the stratification of the epidermis.
  • Compare and contrast the function and location of keratinocytes and melanocytes.

Develop an understanding of the anatomy of the skeletal system.

Objectives:

  • List the components of the axial and appendicular skeleton.
  • Define the four principal types of bones in the skeleton.
  • Describe the gross anatomy of a typical long bone and a flat bone.
  • Describe the histological features of bone tissue.
  • Describe the various markings on the surfaces of the bones.
  • Relate the structure of the markings with their functions.
  • Discuss the function of the fontanels of the skull.
  • Identify the foramina of the skull as listed in the anatomy objective list along with the major structures(s) that pass through these openings.
  • Identify all skeletal structures listed on the BIO 152 Anatomy Objective List.
  • Identify the regions of the vertebral column.
  • Discuss the importance of intervertebral disks and spinal curvatures.
  • Examine the normal spinal curvatures and relate to spinal abnormalities (ex: lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis).

Develop an understanding of bone physiology.

Objectives:

  • Identify the major components of the skeletal system.
  • Define ossification.
  • Discuss the functions provided by components of the skeletal system.
  • Compare and contrast compact and spongy bone tissue.
  • Differentiate between the functions of osteocytes, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts.
  • Compare and contrast intramembranous and endochondral ossification, and appositional growth..
  • Describe the sequence of events seen in fracture repair and discuss some of the factors influencing length of time for repair.
  • Discuss the chemical composition of bone and the relative advantages conferred by its organic and its inorganic components.
  • Identify the major glands affecting bone physiology (the parathyroid glands and parafollicular tissue of the thyroid glands) and explain th effects of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin and human growth hormone (hGH) on bone growth the maintenance.
  • Explain the role of PTH and calcitonin on serum calcium levels and bone density.
  • Explain the role of exercise and mechanical stress on bone remodeling.

Develop an understanding of joints, focusing on synovial joints.

Objectives:

  • Name the three major functional categories of joints and compare the amount of movement allowed by each.
  • Describe the structural characteristics shared by all synovial joints.
  • Name and describe (or perform) the common body movements. (flexion, extension, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, abduction, adduction, circumduction, supination, pronation, inversion, eversion, protraction, retraction, elevation, depression).
  • List at least 5 different types of synovial joints and identify an example of each of these joints.
  • List the bones involved in the following joints (wrist, knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, elbow and jaw)

Develop an understanding of the role of muscles and muscle tissue in the human body.

Objectives:

  • Describe similarities and differences in the structure and function of the three types of muscle tissue and note where they are found in the body.
  • Define: fascia, epimysium, perimysium, endomysium, tendons, and aponeuroses, tetanus, muscle fatigue, isotonic contractions, isometric contractions, oxygen debt, motor unit, muscle twitch.
  • Explain the sliding filament mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction.
  • Explain how muscle fibers are stimulated to contract.
  • Describe a muscle twitch and describe the events occurring during its three phases.
  • Explain the muscle response to changes in stimulation frequency.
  • Explain the muscle response to increasing stimuli strength.
  • Compare and contrast psychological fatigue with physiological fatigue.
  • Describe three ways in which ATP is regenerated in skeletal muscle.

Demonstrate proficiency with specific skeletal muscle names and their relative functions.

Objectives:

  • Define: origin, insertion, prime mover.
  • Identify all structures listed on the Biology 152 Anatomy Objective List.
  • Identify the major function of all of the muscles listed in the anatomy objectives with respect to the following body movements: flexion, extension, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, abduction, adduction, circumduction, supination, pronation, inversion, eversion, protraction, retraction, elevation, depression.

Develop an understanding of the fundamentals of the nervous system and nervous tissue.

Objectives:

  • List the basic functions of the nervous system.
  • Define the terms central nervous system and peripheral nervous system and list the major parts of each.
  • State the function of neurons and the following neuroglia: Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells.
  • Define neuron, describe its important structural components, and relate each to a functional role.
  • Differentiate between a nerve and a tract, and between a nucleus and a ganglion.
  • Explain the importance of the myelin sheath and describe how it is formed in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
  • Describe the function of sensory, motor, or interneurons (association neurons).
  • Define resting membrane potential and describe its electrochemical basis.
  • Explain how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons.
  • Explain the importance of refractoy periods.
  • Define saltatory conduction and contrast it to conduction along unmyelinated fibers.
  • Define synapse and describe how information transmission occurs at a chemical synapse.
  • Describe the general functions of neurotransmitters.
  • Make predictions about the outcome when drugs which mimic, inhibit, or destroy neurotransmitters, neurotransmitter receptors or degrading enzymes (e.g. AChE) are introduced into the synapse.
  • Discuss under which conditions nerve cell/fiber repair can occur.

Develop an understanding of homeostasis and system integration.

Objectives:

  • Define homeostasis.
  • Define negative feedback and describe its role in maintaining body homeostasis.
  • Define positive feedback and describe its role ine maintaining body homeostatis.
  • Give an example of each of the above types of homeostatic mechanisms.

The student will develop an understanding of the structures and functions of the central nervous system.

Objectives:

  • Name the major regions of the adult brain.
  • Identify all structures listed on the Biology 152 Anatomy Objective List.
  • Identify the functions of all structures listed on the Biology 152 Anatomy Objective List.
  • Describe how the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid and the blood-brain barrier protect the CNS.
  • Describe the function, location and formation of cerebrospinal fluid and that if flows in one continuous loop.
  • Describe the gross structure of the spinal cord in relation to the white and gray matter.
  • Explain the function of ascending pathway and where it terminates.
  • Eplain the function of a descending pathway and where it originates.

Develop an understanding of the peripheral nervous system and reflex activity.

Objectives:

  • Define peripheral nervous system and list its components.
  • List the 12 pair of cranial nerves by name and number and give a function of each.
  • Define: ganglion, nerve, cranial nerve, spinal nerve, plexus.
  • Describe the relationship between neurons and nerves.
  • Identify the components of a reflex arc.
  • Compare and contrast the role of rods and cones in vision.
  • Trace the visual pathway to the optic cortex.
  • Follow the sound conduction pathway from the external auditory meatus to the organ of Corti.
  • Explain the role of the semicircular canals and the vestibule in maintaining balance (static vs. dynamic)
  • Identify the structures listed on the BIO 152 Anatomy Objective List.
  • Identify the functions of those structures listed on the BIO 152 Anatomy Objective List.

Develop a basic understanding of the autonomic nervous system.

Objectives:

  • Define autonomic nervous system and explain its relationship to the peripheral nervous system as a whole.
  • Define cholinergic and adrenergic receptors, and list the different types of adrenergic receptors.
  • Compare the somatic and autonomic nervous systems relative to effectors, efferent pathways, and neurotransmitters released.
  • Compare and contrast the general functions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions on the carciovascular, respiratory and digestive systems, sweat glands and pupils.
  • Make predictions about drugs which mimic or inhibit adrenergic or cholinergic effects.

Develop an understanding of the function and anatomy of the endocrine system in general with special emphasis on those endocrine glands and secretions that are not addressed more specifically in other individual systems.

Objectives:

  • Distinguish between endocrine glands and exocrine organs.
  • Define hormone and target tissue (or cell or organ).
  • Identify the structures listed on the BIO 152 Anatomy Objective list.
  • List the hormones and their functions from the following endocrine glands: hypothalamus, anterior gland (adenohypophysis), posterior pituitary gland (neurohypophysis), thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal gland (medulla vs. cortex), pancreas, pineal gland (body), thymus, ovary, testis.
  • Explain how the adrenal medullary secretions act as supplements to sympathetic responses.
  • Compare and contrast how the endocrine system and nervous system function to maintain homeostasis.
  • Describe the control of hormonal secretions via feedback cycles and explain several examples.
  • Describe the structural and functional division of the pituitary gland into the adenohypophysis and the neurohypophysis.
  • Discuss how the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus are structurally and functionally related.
  • Make predictions about potential effects due to hypersecretion or hyposecretion of hormones released by major endocrine glands.

Develop an understanding of the composition and functions of blood.

Objectives:

  • Define the principal characteristics of blood and its functions in the body.
  • Discuss the structure of erythrocytes and their function in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  • Define erythropoiesis.
  • Explain the function of erythropoietin (EPO) and the stimulus for production.
  • Describe the life cycle of an erythrocyte and the fate of bilirubin, heme and globin.
  • List the types of leukocytes and their functions (including roles in phagocytosis and antibody production).
  • Discuss the potential consequences of the following abnormal laboratory values: hematocrit, hemoglobin, differential WBC count, platelet count)
  • List the components of plasma and explain their importance.
  • Describe where vascular spasm, platelets, clotting factors and fibrinolysis fit into the blood clotting sequence.
  • Identify the role of prothrombin, thrombin, and fibrin in the coagulation process.
  • Identify the origin of the formed elements in blood.
  • Identify the sites of production of the formed elements of blood in young children and adults and the role of the hemocytoblast.
  • Explain ABO and Rh blood groups.
  • Make predictions about compatible and incompatible blood transfusions.

Use appropriate metric measurements for length, mass and volume.

Perform writing tasks to promote learning.

Write effectively for a specific audience and purpose.

Perform writing tasks to promote learning.

Demonstrate the learning of concepts through writing.

Speak effectively and accurately in the language of anatomy and physiology.

Objectives:

  • Describe the anatomical position.
  • Use correct anatomical terminology to describe body planes, body sections, body regions and body directions.
  • Locate and name the major body cavities and their subdivisions.
  • Name the specific serous membranes and their functions.
  • Name the four quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity and know major organs in those areas (liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine, large intestine, appendix, urinary bladder)
  • Use the following terms correctly as related to abdominopelvic regions: epigastric, peri-umbilical, flank (rather than lumbar), suprapubic (rather than hypogastric).
  • Know the major organs in the abdominopelvic regions (liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine, large intestine, appendix, urinary bladder)

Write effectively for a specific audience and purpose.

Develop an understanding of basic chemistry as it relates to the study of anatomy and physiology.

Objectives:

  • Define chemical elements and list the four elements that form the bulk of body matter.
  • Define atom, molecule and ion.
  • List the subatomic particles; describe their relative masses, charges and positions in the atom.
  • Define atomic number, atomic mass, atomic weight, isotope, and radioisotope.
  • Distinguish between a compound and mixture.
  • Distinguish between an atim, an ion, an isotope and a molecule.
  • Define solutions and suspensions.
  • Define polar and non-polar compounds.
  • Differentiate clearly between matter and energy and between potential energy and kinetic energy.
  • Explain the role of electrons in chemical bonding and in relation to the octet rule.
  • Differentiate between ionic and covalent bonds.
  • Contrast ionic and covalent bonds with hydrogen bonds.
  • Use chemical notation to symbolize chemical reactions.
  • Identify three major types of chemical reactions (synthesis, decomposition, and exchange).
  • Describe the factors that affect the rates of chemical reactions.

Develop an understanding of basic biochemistry as it relates to the study of anatomy and physiology.

Objectives:

  • Define acid, base and buffers.
  • Explain the importance of water and salts to body homeostasis.
  • Explain the concept of pH.
  • Compare and contrast neutralization and buffering.
  • Describe and compare the building blocks, general structures, and biological functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
  • Explain the role of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis in the formation and breakdown of organic molecules.
  • Describe the four levels of protein structure, and how these affect the action of enzymes.
  • Describe the general mechanism of enzyme activity.
  • Explain the role of ATP in cell metabolism.

Describe cell membrane composition and relate it to function.

Objectives:

  • Define: diffusion, osmolarity, dialysis, dynamic equilibrium, gradient, osmosis, selectively permeable membrane, hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic, active transport, facilitated diffusion, endocytosis, exocytosis (pinocytosis and phagocytosis), fluid mosaic model.
  • Describe the chemical composition of the plasma membrane, including the fluid mosaic model and membrane proteins and their functions.
  • Differentiate clearly between active and passive transport processes relative to energy source, substances transported, direction and mechanism.
  • Identify the compartments of the body (ICF and ECF including plasma and interstitial fluid).
  • Explain the role of osmosis and osmotic pressure in controlling movement of water through cell membranes.

Describe the structural anatomy of a cell and the function of its components.

Objectives:

  • Define: organelle, cytoplasm, plasma membrane, nucleus, cell.
  • Identify the functions of lysosomes and peroxisomes, cilia, flagella, nucleolus, nucleus, nuclear envelope, centrioles, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles and vacuoles.
  • Draw an analogy between the functional components of a cell and a real life organization (ex: manufacturing plant, restaurant, city, etc.)

Discuss the process and significance of ATP formation during cellular respiration.

Objectives:

  • Define: glycolysis, lactic acid fermentation, Kreb's Cycle, ETC (electron transport).
  • Explain the role of ATP in cell metabolism.
  • Discuss this equation: ADP + P <- -> ATP
  • Distinguish between anaerobic and aerobic processes in terms of: where they occur in the cell, energy yield, and end products.

Discuss the structure and significance of nucleic acids.

Objectives:

  • Define: chromatin, chromosome, complementary base pairing, DNA, RNA, DNA replication, gene, mutation, nitrogenous base, nucleic acid, nucleotide, template.
  • Recognize and describe the components of DNA and RNA nucleotides.
  • Recognize and describe the similarities and differences between DNA and RNA.
  • Describe the process of DNA replication..
  • Explain the importance of DNA replication.
  • Predict the complementary strand of DNA when given a segment of DNA.