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Introduction to Chemistry and Cell Biology

BIO 130W

Introduction to Chemistry and Cell Biology

BIO 130W

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 3 and WRITING LEVEL 3 and MATH LEVEL 2.

Introduces the principles and concepts of chemistry and cell biology for students entering allied health curricula. Includes basic math for science, the laws of thermodynamics, theory of atomic structure, chemical bonding, acids, bases, and buffers; introduction to organic chemistry, cell structure and function, basic metabolic pathways, mitosis, meiosis, classical and physiological genetics. Recommended as a preparatory class for BIO 140 and BIO 152 for students with limited background in cell biology and/or chemistry. (30-30)

Outcomes and Objectives

Use the metric system of measurement.

Objectives:

  • Define the basic units of the metric system: Liter, meter, gram and temperature and be able to convert between kilo, base units, deci, centi, milli, u (micro).
  • Recognize reasonable measurements and appropriate units.
  • Convert the following English (or Customary) units to metric measurements: inches, pounds, and degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Make reasonable estimates in metric units for weight, length, and volume. and temperature (ex: "think" in metric)
  • Use measuring equipment to acquire data, carry out appropriate conversions between units and analyze the significance of the data.
  • Apply the use of the metric system to problems.

Describe the structural anatomy of a cell and the function of its components

Objectives:

  • Define: Organelle, cytoplasm, plasma membrane, nucleus, cell, cell theory.
  • List the three major regions of a generalized cell and indicate the general function of each region.
  • Describe the structure and function of: lysosomes, peroxisomes, microtubules, microfilaments, cilia, flagella, nucleolus, nucleus, chromatin, nuclear envelope, centrioles, mitochondria, ribosomes, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles and vacuoles.
  • Calculate the surface area and volume of a regularly shaped object.
  • Apply the surface area to volume ratio of a cell to cellular physiology.

Discuss the process and significance of ATP formation during cellular respiration.

Objectives:

  • Discuss this equation: ADP + P <--> ATP (phosphorylation and dephosphorylation).
  • Summarize important events and products of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain.
  • Distinguish between anaerobic and aerobic processes and describe the influence of oxygen on ATP production.
  • Describe the three stages of metabolism of energy-containing nutrients in the body (anaerobic, aerobic & creatine phosphate pathways)
  • Explain the role of ATP in cell metabolism.
  • Explain how all three groups of organic nutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins) can be interconverted through the glycolytic pathway and Krebs cycle.
  • Describe when a cell will utilize aerobic cellular respiration compared to anaerobic cellular respiration pathways.

Discuss the structure and significance of nucleic acids

Objectives:

  • Define:, chromatin, chromosome, complementary base pairing, DNA, RNA, DNA replication, gene, mutation, nitrogenous base, nucleic acid, nucleotide, template, chromatid
  • Recognize and describe the components of DNA and RNA nucleotides.
  • Recognize and describe the similarities and differences between DNA and RNA.
  • Describe the process of DNA replication
  • Explain the significance of DNA replication
  • Predict the complementary strand of DNA when given a segment of DNA.

Define a gene and explain the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis.

Objectives:

  • Define: gene, codon, mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, nucleic acid, template, transcription, translation, triplets, triplet code, code, anticodon
  • Explain the difference in structure and function among mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA.
  • Name the two phases of protein synthesis and describe the roles of DNA, mRNA, tRNA and rRNA in each phase.
  • Given a strand of DNA and an amino acid-nucleic acid dictionary, predict the amino acid sequence in a polypeptide.
  • Relate protein synthesis to the anatomy and physiology of the cell.

Develop an understanding of genetic mutations and connections to genetic diseases

Objectives:

  • Define: mutation, genotype, phenotype, point mutation, Central Dogma
  • Explain how changes in the DNA sequence result in mutations
  • Predict the outcome of a protein synthesized if substitutions of one nitrogen base are made for another nitrogen base.
  • Explain how any mutation could result in an altered phenotype.
  • Explain how the absence or low levels of correctly formed proteins contribute to genetic diseases.
  • Explain the difference between inheritable versus non-inheritable mutations.

Discuss the stages, events and significance of somatic cell division.

Objectives:

  • Define: differentiation, chromosome, chromatid, centromere, spindle fibers, centriole, mitosis, cytokinesis, apoptosis, cancer, diploid, homologous chromosomes, karyotype, autosome and sex chromosome.
  • List the phases of the cell life cycle.
  • Recognize a picture or diagram of each phase of the cell life cycle (interphase and mitotic phases).
  • Describe the key events in each phase of the cell life cycle.
  • List the purposes of cell division.
  • Explain the relationship between cancer, cell differentiation and mitosis.
  • Explain the significance of somatic cell division.

Discuss the stages, events, and significance of reproductive cell division.

Objectives:

  • Define the following terms as they relate to sexual reproduction: diploid, egg cell, ovum, oocyte, fertilization, gamete, gonad, haploid, homologous chromosomes, independent assortment, karyotype, meiosis, reduction division, sperm cells, spermatocyte, zygote, nondisjunction, crossing over, segregation, oogenesis, spermatogenesis
  • Recognize a picture or diagram of a sex cell in each meiotic phase.
  • List the purposes of reproductive cell division (meiosis).
  • Describe the key events of each meiotic phase.
  • Compare and contrast the cell division processes of mitosis and meiosis.

Develop a basic understanding of human genetics.

Objectives:

  • Define: allele, carrier, dominant, recessive, gene, genotype, heterozygous, homozygous, Mendelian genetics, phenotype, Punnet square, sex chromosome, X-linked gene, polygenic inheritence, pleiotropy, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, co-dominant.
  • Differentiate between dominant and recessive alleles.
  • Provide an example of a genetically determined medical condition.
  • Explain how sex is determined in humans.
  • Set up and work a Punnet square for a monohybrid cross.
  • Predict the outcome of a monohybrid genetic cross.

Develop a basic understanding of scientific literature.

Objectives:

  • Locate an article in a professional journal which relates to a biology topic.
  • Relate concepts of this course to the research article content.
  • Explain how the scientific method is demonstrated in a study within the research article.

Identify root words in the language of anatomy and physiology.

Recognize the scientific method and its use in clinical studies.

Objectives:

  • Define valid, reliable, experimental group, control group, variable, observation, hypothesis, theory, and scientific method.
  • List the steps in the scientific method.
  • Draw a valid conclusion from a set of observations.
  • Graph a set of data derived from experiment procedures.

Write effectively for a specific audience and purpose.

Perform writing tasks to promote learning.

Demonstrate the learning of concepts through writing.

Describe the basic characteristics of the structure of matter.

Objectives:

  • Define: Matter, weight, specific gravity, energy, potential energy, kinetic energy, calorie, the three states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas) and density.
  • Differentiate clearly between matter and energy and between potential energy and kinetic energy.
  • Explain how the three states of matter relate to energy.
  • Apply the concepts above to examples derived from everyday experiences.

Explain basic inorganic chemistry concepts of the biologically important elements including carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, iron, magnesium, calcium, phosphorous, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine.

Objectives:

  • Identify by name and symbol the most common elements found in living cells.
  • Define: element, atom, atomic number, molecule, atomic weight, mass number, isotope, radioisotope, AMU, atomic nucleus, chemical bonds, chemical formula, chemical reaction, chemical symbol, covalent bond, empirical formula, compound, mixture, hydrogen bond, ionic bond, ions, ionization, orbital, Periodic Table of the Elements, solvent, solute, solution, products, reactants, structural formula, hydrolysis, dehydration synthesis, polar, nonpolar.
  • Describe the relative masses, charges, and positions of subatomic (proton, electrons, neutrons) particles in an atom.
  • Define a chemical reaction and distinguish the reactants from the products.
  • Distinguish between a compound and a mixture.
  • Compare solutions and suspensions.
  • Determine the number and location of particles within an atom when given the information on a periodic table.
  • Explain the role of electrons in chemical bonding and in relation to the octet rule.
  • Differentiate between ionic and covalent bonds. Contrast these bonds with hydrogen bonds
  • Identify three major types of chemical reactions (synthesis, decomposition, and exchange).
  • Explain at least one use of radioactive isotopes in medical procedure and describe how one might protect themselves from exposure to radioactive isotopes.
  • Describe the factors that affect chemical reaction rates.
  • Identify the elements and the ratios in a given empirical formula.
  • When given a structural formula and a model kit, build a model of a molecule.
  • Apply the concepts above to examples derived from everyday experiences.
  • Apply the concepts to human physiology issues.
  • Distinguish between atom, ion, isotope and molecule.
  • Use chemical notation to symbolize chemical reactions.

Develop an understanding of homeostasis.

Objectives:

  • Define homeostasis.
  • Define negative feedback and describe its role in maintaining body homeostasis.
  • Define positive feedback and describe its role in maintaining body homeostasis.
  • Give an example of each of the above types of homeostatic mechanism.

Describe acids, bases and buffers and their role in homeostasis.

Objectives:

  • Describe the characteristics of water
  • Define: Acid, base, hydrogen ion, hydroxide ion, pH, buffer, homeostasis, salts, neutralization, dissociation and electrolytes. Strong acid vs. weak acid base vs weak base
  • Distinguish among acids, bases, hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions.
  • Explain the role of a buffer in maintaining pH in biological systems.
  • Carry out simple experiments to test the effects of buffers on solutions with different ph, analyze the data, and provide rationale for the results.
  • Apply the concepts above to examples derived from everyday experiences.
  • Supply examples of how these concepts apply to physiology issues.
  • Compare and contrast neutralization and buffering.

Explain introductory organic chemistry and biochemistry concepts

Objectives:

  • Define: carbon skeleton, macromolecule, amino acid, biochemistry, carbohydrate complex carbohydrate,dehydration synthesis, denature, double bond, fat, fatty acid, functional groups, glycerol, hydrolyses (digestion), inorganic molecules, isomer, lipid, monomer, nucleic acid, nucleotide, organic molecule, peptide bond, phospholipid, polypeptide, polymer, protein, saturated, steroid, triglyceride, unsaturated, amphipathic, saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acid.
  • Describe and compare the building blocks, general structures and biological functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
  • Explain the role of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis in the formation and breakdown of organic molecules
  • Describe the four levels of protein structure.
  • Apply the four levels of protein structure to their biological function/ importance.
  • Supply examples of organic molecules derived from everyday experiences.
  • Supply example of how the chemistry and biochemistry concepts apply to physiology issues.

Discuss the structure, function, and importance of enzymes.

Objectives:

  • Define: activation energy, active site, catalyst, denature, enzyme, enzyme-substrate complex, substrate, optimum, co-enzyme.
  • Explain the relationship between enzyme shape, substrate shape and action specificity of an enzyme.
  • Explain the need for enzymes in the maintenance of living cells.
  • Supply examples of enzymes derived from everyday experiences.
  • Describe how the environmental factors of heat, pH, enzyme concentration, and substrate concentration influence a reaction.
  • Supply examples of how these concepts apply to physiology issues.
  • Describe the following enzymatic control processes: enzymatic competition, negative-feedback inhibition, inhibitors (competitive inhibition).

Describe cell membrane composition and relate it to function.

Objectives:

  • Define: diffusion, osmolarity, dialysis, dynamic equilibrium, gradient, osmosis, selectively permeable membrane, hypertonic, hypotonic, isotonic, active transport, facilitated diffusion, endocytosis, exocytosis (pinocytosis and phagocytosis), fluid mosaic model.
  • Describe the structure of the plasma membrane, including the fluid mosaic model, ion channels and ion pumps.
  • Differentiate clearly between active and passive transport processes relative to energy source, substances transported, direction and mechanism.
  • Determine the net direction of movement of substances in active transport and passive transport.
  • Identify the compartments of the body (ICF and ECF including plasma and interstitial fluid).
  • Explain the importance of water and salts to body homeostasis.
  • Explain the role of osmosis in controlling movement of water through cell membranes.
  • Supply examples of how these concepts apply to physiology issues.