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Introduction to Anatomy And Physiology

BIO 101W

Introduction to Anatomy And Physiology

BIO 101W

Course Description

Prerequisites: Prerequisites: READING LEVEL 2, WRITING LEVEL 2 AND MATH LEVEL 2.

An introduction to basic human anatomy and physiology taught in a lecture-demonstration format. Includes basic principles of the structures and functions of the human body and the terminology related to these topics. (60-0)

Outcomes and Objectives

The student will develop an understanding of the relationship between anatomy and physiology in the human body.

Objectives:

  • Define anatomy and physiology.
  • List and describe the major characteristic of life.
  • List and describe the major needs of organisms.
  • Name (in order of increasing complexity) the different levels of structural organization that make up the human body, and explain their relationships.
  • List the 11 organ systems of the body and briefly explain the major function(s) of each system.

The student will become proficient with specific skeletal muscle names and their relative functions.

Objectives:

  • Define: origin, insertion, prime mover.
  • Demonstrate or identify the different types of body movement.
  • Name and locate the major muscles of the human body on a model or diagram.
  • Identify the following actions: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion, eversion, supination, pronation

Develop an understanding of a functional overview of the nervous system.

Objectives:

  • List the general functions of the nervous system
  • Define the terms central nervous system and peripheral nervous system and list the major parts of each.
  • State the function of neurons and neuroglia.
  • Sketch and label the structure of a typical neuron.
  • List the types of general sensory receptors and describe their functions.
  • Identify and indicate the functions of the major regions of the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum on a human brain model or diagram.
  • Name the three meningeal layers and state their functions.
  • List two important functions of the spinal cord.
  • Name the components of a reflex arc and describe the function of each component.
  • On a diagram, label the gross anatomy of the spinal cord.
  • On a diagram, label the major structures seen in a cross section of the spinal cord.
  • Identify at least six cranial nerves by number and name, and list the major functions of each.
  • Describe the function of each component of a typical neuron.
  • Describe the events that lead to the generation of a nerve impulse.
  • Describe the major events that lead to the conduction of a nerve impulse from one neuron to another.
  • Explain the importance of cerebrospinal fluid for protection of the brain.
  • Describe the general structure of a nerve.
  • Contrast the effect of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions on the following organs: heart, lungs, digestive system, blood vessels.

The student will develop a working knowledge of the structure and function of the special senses.

Objectives:

  • Identify on a model or diagram the accessory structures of the eye and the internal anatomy of the eye and list the functions of each.
  • Name the eye tunics and indicate the major function of each.
  • Trace the visual pathway to the optic cortex.
  • Define: accommodation, astigmatism, blind spot, cataract, emmetropia, glaucoma, hyperopia, myopia, refraction.
  • Identify on a model or diagram the structures of the external, middle, and internal ear and functions of each.
  • Define sensorineural and conductive deafness and list possible causes of each.
  • Describe the location, structure, and function of the olfactory and taste receptors.

The student will develop an understanding of the function and anatomy of the endocrine system.

Objectives:

  • Define hormone and target organ.
  • On an appropriate diagram, identify the major endocrine glands and tissues.
  • List hormones produces by the endocrine glands and discuss their general functions.
  • List the hormones of the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) and their principal actions
  • Distinguish between endocrine and exocrine glands.
  • Explain the three methods of endocrine gland stimuli.
  • Discuss the role of insulin and glucagon in maintaining homeostasis.
  • Describe the functional relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.
  • Describe two major pathologic consequences of hypersecretion and hyposecretion of the hormones studied in this module.
  • Identify negative and positive feedback systems.

The student will develop an understanding of the composition and functions of blood

Objectives:

  • Describe the composition and volume of whole blood.
  • Describe the composition of plasma.
  • List the cell types comprising the formed elements and identify the major functions of each type.
  • Define: anemia, polycythemia, leukopenia, and leukocytosis.
  • Identify the role of the hemocytoblast.
  • Identify the major constituents of plasma and their functions.
  • Discuss the importance of plasma in the body.
  • Name at least two factors that may inhibit or enhance the blood-clotting process.
  • Describe the ABO and Rh blood groups.
  • Explain the basis for a transfusion reaction.
  • Identify the role of hemoglobin
  • Describe the three phases of hemostasis.

The student will develop an understanding of the anatomy and function of the circulatory system.

Objectives:

  • Describe the location of the heart in the body.
  • Identify the major anatomical features of the heart on a model or diagram.
  • Trace the pathway of blood through the heart.
  • Name the functional blood supply of the heart.
  • Define: systole, diastole, stroke volume, and cardiac cycle, heart sounds, murmur, blood pressure, pulse, hypertension, atherosclerosis.
  • Name the elements of the intrinsic conduction system of the heart and describe the pathway of impulses through this system.
  • On a diagram, identify the body's major arteries and veins.
  • Identify or name several pulse points.
  • List factors affecting and/or determining blood pressure.
  • Name the fetal vascular modifications or "fetal shunts".
  • Name the two major types of structures composing the lymphatic system.
  • Identify the function(s) of lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, Peyer's patches, and the spleen.
  • Compare the pulmonary and systemic circuits.
  • Explain the operation of the heart valves.
  • Explain what information can be gained from an electrocardiogram (ECG).
  • Describe the effect of the following on cardiovascular function: stimulation by the vagus nerve, epinephrine.
  • Compare and contrast the structure and function of arteries, veins, and capillaries.
  • Describe the exchanges that occur across capillary walls.
  • Describe the composition of lymph and explain how it is formed and transported through the lymphatic vessels.
  • Explain the function and importance of the hepatic-portal system.

The student will develop an understanding of the function of the non-specific and specific defenses of the human body.

Objectives:

  • Define antigen and antibody.
  • Name the two arms of the immune response and relate each to a specific lymphocyte type (B or T cell).
  • Name several antimicrobial substances produced by the body that act in nonspecific body defense.
  • Describe the protective functions of skin and mucous membranes.
  • Explain the importance of phagocytes and natural killer cells.
  • Describe the roles of B cells, T cells, and memory cells.
  • Describe several ways in which antibodies act against antigens.
  • Distinguish between active and passive immunity.
  • Distinguish between primary and secondary humoral responses to an antigen.

The student will develop an understanding of the anatomy and function of the respiratory system.

Objectives:

  • Name and identify on a diagram or model the organs forming the respiratory passageway from the nasal cavity to the alveoli of the lungs.
  • Define: cellular respiration, external respiration, internal respiration, pulmonary ventilation, expiration, inspiration, apnea, hyperventilation, hypoventilation.
  • Name the brain areas involved in control of respiration.
  • Describe the function of each of the organs forming the respiratory passageway from the nasal cavity to the alveoli of the lungs.
  • Explain how the respiratory muscles cause volume changes that lead to air flow into and out of the lungs.
  • Describe the process of gas exchanges in the lungs and tissues.

The student will develop an understanding of the anatomy and function of the digestive system.

Objectives:

  • Name the organs of the alimentary canal and accessory digestive organs and identify each on an appropriate diagram or model.
  • Identify the overall function of the digestive system as digestion and absorption of foodstuffs.
  • Define: nutrients, fat soluble vitamins, water soluble vitamins, essential nutrients.
  • Describe the general activities of each digestive system organ.
  • Describe the composition and function(s) of saliva.
  • Describe the metabolic roles of the liver.

The student will develop an understanding of the anatomy and function of the urinary system.

Objectives:

  • Describe the location of the kidneys in the body.
  • List substances that are abnormal urinary components.
  • Identify on a diagram or model the organs of the urinary system.
  • Define micturition.
  • Identify the effects of the following on kidney function: hypertension, occlusion of the afferent arteriole.
  • Describe the anatomy of the nephron.
  • Describe the process of urine formation, identifying the areas of the nephron that are responsible for filtration, reabsorption and secretion.
  • Describe the function of the kidneys in excretion of nitrogen-containing wastes.
  • Explain the role of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the regulation of water balance by the kidney.
  • Explain the role of aldosterone in sodium and potassium balance of the blood.
  • Describe the difference in control of the external and internal urethral sphincters.
  • Compare the course and length of the male urethra to that of the female.

The student will develop an understanding of homeostasis and system integration.

Objectives:

  • Define homeostasis.
  • Give an example of a homeostatic mechanism
  • Define negative feedback and describe its role in maintaining body homeostasis.
  • Explain the significance of homeostasis for living systems.

The student will develop an understanding of the anatomy and function of the female and male reproductive system.

Objectives:

  • Identify on a model or diagram the organs of the male reproductive system.
  • Name the endocrine and exocrine products of the testes.
  • List the composition of semen and name the glands that produce it.
  • Trace the pathway followed by sperm from the testis to the body exterior.
  • Define: erection, ejaculation, circumcision, meiosis, spermatogenesis, endometrium, myometrium, ovulation, oogenesis, fertilization, zygote, menarche, menopause, implantation, HCG.
  • Identify on a model or diagram the organs of the female reproductive system.
  • List the functions of the vesicular follicle and corpus luteum of the ovary.
  • Identify on a model or diagram the structure of the mammary glands.
  • Identify the phases of the menstrual cycle.
  • Identify the phases of the uterine and ovarian cycle.
  • List the major functions of the placenta.
  • Trace the path followed by an egg after ovulation.
  • Discuss the general function of each organ of the male reproductive system.
  • Describe the structure of a sperm and relate its structure to its function.
  • Describe the effect of FSH and LH on testis functioning.
  • Discuss the general function of each organ of the female reproductive system, including the regions of the uterus (cervix, fundus, body).
  • Describe how labor is initiated and briefly discuss the three stages of labor.
  • Distinguish between an embryo and a fetus.
  • Describe the influence of FSH and LH on ovarian function.
  • Relate the blood levels of estrogens and progesterone to the ovarian and uterine cycle.

Perform writing tasks to promote learning.

Write effectively for a specific audience and purpose.

Demonstrate the learning of concepts through writing.

The student will speak effectively and accurately in the language of anatomy and physiology.

Objectives:

  • Describe the anatomical position.
  • Use correct anatomical terminology to describe body planes, body sections, body regions and relative positions.
  • Identify the major body cavities and their subdivisions.
  • Name the specific serous membranes.

The student will develop an understanding of the basic chemistry that is required to understand the functioning of the human body.

Objectives:

  • Define chemical element and list the four elements that form the bulk of body matter.
  • List the subatomic particles and describe their relative masses, charges, positions and functions in the atom.
  • Define kinetic and potential energy and provide one example (from the body) of the use of each energy form.
  • Distinguish between ionic and covalent bonds.
  • Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds.
  • Differentiate between an acid and a base.
  • List several salts (or their ions) vitally important to body functioning.
  • Define: enzyme, denatured.
  • Explain the relationship between elements and atoms.
  • Explain how molecular and structural formulas are used to symbolize the composition of compounds.
  • Contrast synthesis and decomposition reactions.
  • Explain the concept of pH and state the pH of blood.
  • Compare and contrast carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in terms of their building blocks, structures, and functions in the body.
  • Explain the role of enzymes in metabolic processes.
  • Explain the importance of ATP in the body.
  • Recognize that chemical reactions involve the interaction of electrons to make and break chemical bonds.

The student will develop an understanding of cells and how they carry out all the chemical activities needed to sustain life.

Objectives:

  • Name the four elements that make up the bulk of living matter.
  • Define: cell, organelle, anabolism, catabolism.
  • Identify on a cell model or diagram the three major cell regions (nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane).
  • Identify on a cell model or diagram the nucleus of a cell and identify the function.
  • Identify on a cell model or diagram the organelles of a cell and identify the function.
  • Define: selective permeability, diffusion (including dialysis and osmosis), active transport, exocytosis, endocytosis (including phagocytosis and pinocytosis), hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic.
  • Identify on a diagram the components of the cell membrane.
  • Describe briefly the process of DNA replication and of mitosis.
  • Explain the importance of mitotic cell division.
  • In relation to protein synthesis, describe the roles of DNA and of the three varieties of RNA.
  • Relate the structure of the cell membrane to its function.
  • Explain how genetic information is used in the control of cellular processes

The student will develop an understanding of the major tissue types in the human body.

Objectives:

  • Name, define and describe the four major types of tissue of the body and their roles.
  • List the major functions of epithelial tissue.
  • Name and describe the three "layering" arrangements (simple, pseudostratified, stratified) of epithelial tissue.
  • Name and describe the three "shape" categories (squamous, cuboidal, columnar) of epithelial tissue.
  • Name the major types of epithelium and identify an organ in which each is found.
  • List the function and location of the following connective tissue types:
  • Loose(or areolar), adipose, dense regular, elastic, hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage, bone, blood
  • Identify the major fibers of connective tissue.
  • List the function and location of the following muscle tissue types: skeletal, smooth, cardiac.
  • Describe the general characteristics and functions of nerve tissue.

The student will explain the role of the integumentary system as a functioning organ of the human body.

Objectives:

  • List the general functions of each membrane type (cutaneous, mucous,serous, and synovial) and identify a location for each in the body.
  • List several important functions of the integumentary system and explain how these functions are accomplished.
  • List the functions of each of the two layers of the skin.
  • List the functions of each of the accessory organs of the skin.
  • Identify on a model or drawing the layers of the skin and the accessory structures of the skin.
  • Name the uppermost and deepest layers of the epidermis and describe characteristics of each.
  • Differentiate between first-, second-, and third-degree burns.
  • Explain what accounts for individual and racial differences in skin, such as skin color.

The student will develop an understanding between the components of the skeletal system and their functions.

Objectives:

  • Identify the subdivisions of the skeleton as axial or appendicular.
  • List at least three functions of the skeletal system.
  • Name the four main kinds of bones.
  • Identify the major anatomical areas of a long bone.
  • On a skull or diagram, identify and name the bones of the skull.
  • Name the parts of a typical vertebra.
  • On a diagram, identify the microscopic anatomy of compact bone.
  • Name the three major categories of joints and compare the amount of movement allowed by each.
  • List six types of freely moveable joints and identify an example of each of these joints.
  • Identify on a skeleton or a drawing the regions of the vertebral column.
  • Identify on a skeleton or a diagram the bones of the shoulder and pelvic girdles and their attached limbs.
  • Explain the role of bone salts and the organic matrix in making bone both hard and flexible.
  • Describe briefly the process of bone formation in the fetus and summarize the events of bone remodeling throughout life.
  • Explain the role of PTH and calcitonin on bone density.
  • Explain the role of fontanels in the fetal skeleton.
  • Discuss the importance of intervertebral disks and spinal curvatures.
  • Explain how the abnormal spinal curvatures (scoliosis, lordosis, and kyphosis) differ from one another.

The student will develop an understanding of the relationship between the microscopic anatomy and/or physiology of muscle tissues and their functions.

Objectives:

  • Describe similarities and differences in the structure and function of the three types of muscle tissue and note where they are found in the body.
  • Define: fascia, epimysium, perimysium, endomysium, tendons, and aponeuroses.
  • Define: tetanus, muscle fatigue, isotonic contractions, isometric contractions, muscle tone, muscle fatigue, oxygen debt.
  • Explain the major events in muscle contraction. This should include: actin sliding past myosin, the shortening of sarcomeres, and the role of calcium ions. (Note: the need to know about calcium ions is to make a connection with Calcium blockers)
  • Explain why a muscle will go into tetanic contraction.
  • Explain the importance of a nerve supply to skeletal muscle in order for contraction to occur.