# Elements of Structural Design

ARC 211

## Course Description

Prerequisite: MATH LEVEL 4. Bridges the gap of understanding between engineering and building contractors. Identifies the weights of construction materials. Analyzes loads, stresses, and deflections of beams, floor joists, roof trusses and columns. Provides basic design experience in wood, steel, and concrete. (30-0)

## Outcomes and Objectives

#### Objectives:

• Determine the weights of construction materials.
• Determine the external reactions of a symmetrically-loaded 2-D truss.
• Review algebra.
• Calculate loads in tension, compression, shear.

### Analyze the Mechanical Properties of a Structural Member Under Load.

#### Objectives:

• Calculate the tensile or compressive stress imposed on a member given its cross-section dimensions and the axial load.
• Compare stress with material allowable strength to determine over- or under-loaded conditions.
• Calculate shear stress given force and shear area and identify where shear is present.
• Determine the axial deformation of a structural member under load.
• Compare the stiffness of different materials using the Modulus of Elasticity.

#### Objectives:

• Identify where simply-supported beams and cantilever beams are used in the building industry.
• Calculate moments on beams due to both concentrated and distributed loads.
• Calculate reactions on beams using moments.
• Determine the shear force anywhere along a beam using a shear diagram.
• Determine the bending moment anywhere along a beam using a moment diagram.

### Obtain the Proper Section property for Analysis or Design.

#### Objectives:

• Find cross-sectional area in the table.
• Find centroid of a cross-section in the table for sections such as I-beams, angle irons, etc.
• Find moment of inertia of a cross-section in the table such as for I-beams, channels, angles, etc. as well as for regular geometric shapes.
• Find the section modulus of a cross-section in the table.
• Calculate the centroid for a cross-section not found in the tables.
• Calculate the moment of inertia for a cross-section not found in the tables.

#### Objectives:

• Calculate the maximum bending stress using moment formulas from beam tables.
• Compare maximum stress with allowable stress for either wood or steel.
• Calculate maximum deflection using formulas from beam tables.
• Compare maximum deflection with code.
• Calculate maximum horizontal shear stress and location for wooden beams or manufactured steel beams.
• Compare maximum horizontal shear stress with allowable for a wooden beam.
• Design a wooden beam, given the load and span, specifying wood and dimensions.
• Design a steel beam, given the load and span, specifying cross section and dimensions.

#### Objectives:

• Find the code distributed load values in the tables for floors, ceilings, roofs, etc.
• Design the floor joists, specifying size, spacing, and bridging.
• Design the ceiling or roof rafters, specifying size and spacing.

### Design Wooden Structures Other Than Beams.

#### Objectives:

• Specify the bolt size and pattern in a bolted joint.
• Specify the cross-section of a wood column, given unsupported height, end conditions, and load.