# Elements of Structural Design

ARC 211## Course Description

Prerequisite: MATH LEVEL 4. Bridges the gap of understanding between engineering and building contractors. Identifies the weights of construction materials. Analyzes loads, stresses, and deflections of beams, floor joists, roof trusses and columns. Provides basic design experience in wood, steel, and concrete. (30-0)

## Outcomes and Objectives

### Analyze Loads in Construction.

#### Objectives:

- Determine the weights of construction materials.
- Calculate total loads, both live and dead.
- Determine the external reactions of a symmetrically-loaded 2-D truss.
- Review algebra.
- Calculate loads in tension, compression, shear.

### Analyze the Mechanical Properties of a Structural Member Under Load.

#### Objectives:

- Calculate the tensile or compressive stress imposed on a member given its cross-section dimensions and the axial load.
- Compare stress with material allowable strength to determine over- or under-loaded conditions.
- Calculate shear stress given force and shear area and identify where shear is present.
- Determine the axial deformation of a structural member under load.
- Compare the stiffness of different materials using the Modulus of Elasticity.

### Analyze Distributed Load Systems Using Beams Under Load.

#### Objectives:

- Identify where simply-supported beams and cantilever beams are used in the building industry.
- Calculate moments on beams due to both concentrated and distributed loads.
- Calculate reactions on beams using moments.
- Determine the shear force anywhere along a beam using a shear diagram.
- Determine the bending moment anywhere along a beam using a moment diagram.

### Obtain the Proper Section property for Analysis or Design.

#### Objectives:

- Find cross-sectional area in the table.
- Find centroid of a cross-section in the table for sections such as I-beams, angle irons, etc.
- Find moment of inertia of a cross-section in the table such as for I-beams, channels, angles, etc. as well as for regular geometric shapes.
- Find the section modulus of a cross-section in the table.
- Calculate the centroid for a cross-section not found in the tables.
- Calculate the moment of inertia for a cross-section not found in the tables.

### Analyze a Beam Under Load or Design a New Beam Given the Loading and Span.

#### Objectives:

- Calculate the maximum bending stress using moment formulas from beam tables.
- Compare maximum stress with allowable stress for either wood or steel.
- Calculate maximum deflection using formulas from beam tables.
- Compare maximum deflection with code.
- Calculate maximum horizontal shear stress and location for wooden beams or manufactured steel beams.
- Compare maximum horizontal shear stress with allowable for a wooden beam.
- Design a wooden beam, given the load and span, specifying wood and dimensions.
- Design a steel beam, given the load and span, specifying cross section and dimensions.

### Design All Wooden Load-Bearing Structures in a House Addition.

#### Objectives:

- Find the code distributed load values in the tables for floors, ceilings, roofs, etc.
- Calculate roof loads in walls, wall loads on floor, etc.
- Design the floor joists, specifying size, spacing, and bridging.
- Design the ceiling or roof rafters, specifying size and spacing.

### Design Wooden Structures Other Than Beams.

#### Objectives:

- Specify the bolt size and pattern in a bolted joint.
- Specify the cross-section of a wood column, given unsupported height, end conditions, and load.

### Design Steel Structures.

#### Objectives:

- Find safe loads in steel load tables.
- Specify steel joist dimension and spacing, given roof load and span.
- Specify a steel column H-section from the table, given height and load.

### Understand Design of Concrete Structures.

#### Objectives:

- Determine location of stresses and use of reinforcing rod in concrete beams.